Luxembourg

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Overview
<p> Luxembourg is a small European country surrounded by Belgium, West Germany and France. Though the area was originally settled by Celts and Romans, Luxembourgers consider themselves a culturally distinct people. Historically, they have been ruled by dynasties, such as the Bourbons, Habsburgs, and Hohenzollerns, and fallen under French, Austrian and German control at times. Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy in 1354, and in 1815, the country was granted Grand Duchy status by the Congress of Vienna. Luxembourg achieved full political independence in 1839, but was not recognized as such until 1867, when it became politically neutral. During this period, economic problems resulted in a massive emigration to the US. Germany occupied Luxembourg during World Wars I and II, and after the Second World War, Luxembourg became both a member of NATO and a founding member of the European Union. Luxembourg has become a very prosperous nation, offering tax havens to millions of investors worldwide while also engaging in a Double Tax Treaty with the US to improve trade. It also has become a diplomatic haven for contributors to the winning party in U.S. presidential elections. Only three of the last 21 U.S. ambassadors to Luxembourg have been career diplomats.</p>
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Basic Information
<p> Lay of the Land: Residents of this teardrop-shaped country surrounded by Belgium, West Germany, and France consider themselves a culturally distinct people.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Population: 487,751</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant (Lutheran, Calvinist) 2.0%, Muslim 1.5%, Orthodox Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%, non-religious 5.0%.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ethnic Groups: Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other European 7.3%, other 5.2%.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Languages: Luxembourgish 64.9% (national language) French 2.8% (administrative language), German (administrative language) 2.2%, English.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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History
<p> The history of Luxembourg dates back to Celtic and Roman times. The territory was once ruled by Charles the Great, but began its history in the year 963. Its first ruler, Siegfried, took control of the Luxembourg Castle which served as a sanctuary and watchtower. Soon a surrounding town&nbsp;developed under different rulers.&nbsp;</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The dynasty in Luxembourg protected several Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Bohemia and Archbishops of Trier and Mainz, and from the Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance, the region was called <span>Lucilinburhuc, Lutzburg, L&uuml;tzelburg, Luccelemburc, Lichtburg, among other names. It became officially known as Luxembourg in 1060.</span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The country remained an independent fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire until 1354, when Emperor Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy under the Crown of Bohemia. In 1437, Luxembourg&rsquo;s royal family became extinct in the male line, and the duchy and castles were held by the Bohemian princess Elizabeth of Gorlitz, who was childless.&nbsp;In 1443, she was forced to give territory to her powerful neighbor, Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. Although he had captured the region, he allowed administrative duties to be carried out by local dukes or duchesses.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Elisabeth II, Duchess of Luxembourg, gave up her title to Charles, successor of Philip III. This allowed Charles to add the title of Duke of Luxembourg to his existing title of Duke of Burgundy.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Duke Charles continued to conquer more territories to add to Burgundy. However, Charles was defeated and his possession of Luxembourg was claimed by France. However, Maximilian I recaptured the territory for the Burgundy empire during his reign from 1477 to 1482.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1556, Charles III of Luxembourg gave up his thron,e which permitted the duchy to become part of the Spanish Netherlands.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The Spanish Netherlands controlled the region until 1679 when Louis XIV of France invaded Luxembourg. However, France was unable to manage the territory, which returned to the Spanish Netherlands in 1697 by the Treaty of Ryswick.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> From 1701 to 1714, the War of Spanish Succession led to Austrian rule of Luxembourg. Austrian rule lasted until 1795 when France conquered Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> France was defeated in 1814. In order to decide the fate of French territories, the Congress of Vienna commenced on June 9, 1815. At this time, Luxembourg became the &ldquo;Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,&rdquo; a province of the Netherlands under King William I. During this period, the Netherlands was under a greater grouping known as the German Confederation.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg citizens revolted against William I because of his heavy taxes. As a result, external powers intervened in the conflict and split the territory between the German Confederation and Belgium. The First Treaty of London in 1839 established the independence of Belgium and the independence of the German portion of Luxembourg. However, William I of Netherlands refused this Treaty.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> This led to the Luxembourg Crisis, a dispute between France and Prussia about Luxembourg&rsquo;s political status. The dispute ended with the Second Treaty of London in 1867 in which Luxembourg was recognized as independent, and politically neutral.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg fell increasingly under Germany&rsquo;s influence and was occupied by Germany from 1914 to 1918, and again from 1940 to 1944. After the end of World War II, Luxembourg abandoned neutrality and became a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. Luxembourg also became a founding member of the European Union, which was formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). During the second half of the 20th century, Luxembourg became one of the world&rsquo;s richest countries, buoyed by a successful financial services sector, political stability and integration with other European nations.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1995, Luxembourg&rsquo;s Prime Minister Jacques Santer became president of the European Commission. However, he later had to resign over accusations of corruption.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1999, Luxembourg adopted the euro as its currency.&nbsp;In October 2000, Grand Duke Henri succeeded his father, Grand Duke Jean, when Jean announced his plans to abdicate after a 35-year reign.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On September 10, 2004, Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker became the semi-permanent president of the group of finance ministers from the 12 countries that share the euro, a role dubbed &ldquo;Mr. Euro.&rdquo;&nbsp;On July 10, 2005, after threats of resignation by Prime Minister Juncker, the proposed European Constitution was approved by 56.52% of voters.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2008, parliament proposed a bill that supported the use of euthanasia. This led to a constitutional crisis because the Grand Duke Henri threatened to veto this bill despite a majority vote in parliament. As a result, Prime Minister Juncker suggested a ceremonial position for the Grand Duke in which he would no longer have power to influence laws.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> As of 2008, Luxembourg had achieved a per capita Gross Domestic Product of $111,743, making it the third richest country in the world.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourg_history"><font color="#0000ff">History of Luxembourg</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_of_Luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">List of Monarchs of Luxembourg</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Luxembourg#Medieval_Luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg</font></a> (New World Encyclopedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.timelineindex.com/content/select/926/45,142,926"><font color="#0000ff">Timeline of Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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Luxembourg's Newspapers
<p> <a href="http://le-jeudi.editpress.lu/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Le Jeudi</font></a><font size="2"> (French)</font></p> <div> <a href="http://www.lavoix.lu/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Le Voix de Luxembourg</font></a><font size="2"> (French)</font></div> <div> <a href="http://luxembourgglobe.com/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Globe</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.land.lu/site2009/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Land</font></a><font size="2"> (German)</font></div> <div> <a href="http://www.abyznewslinks.com/luxem.htm"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Newspapers and News Media Guide</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/luxembou.htm"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg&rsquo;s Newspapers</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://bonjour.news352.lu/"><font color="#0000ff">News 352</font></a> (French)</div>
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History of U.S. Relations with Luxembourg
<p> The first Luxembourgers came to New York City (New Amsterdam at the time) with the Dutch in 1630.&nbsp;</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The most prominent Luxembourger in pre-revolutionary America was Father Raphael de Luxembourg, who was appointed by the King of France to represent royal interests in the French territory of Louisiana in 1723.&nbsp;Father Raphael became known for converting the Native Americans in Louisiana to Christianity, as well as his efforts in securing just recompense for blacks and Native Americans laboring in the territory.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The largest wave of Luxembourgers immigrated in the mid-19th century. An estimated 45,000 Luxembourgers immigrated between 1841 and 1891, with the greatest numbers arriving in the 1880&rsquo;s. They settled primarily in the Midwest, drawn by the promise of inexpensive, fertile land.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> During this period, the US officially recognized Luxembourg under President Rutherford Hayes on May 31, 1878.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Immigration slowed in the 20th century, although 200 to 300 Luxembourger Jews fled to America between 1937-1940. The states containing the largest Luxembourger American populations are Illinois (6,963), Wisconsin (6,580), Minnesota (5,867), Iowa (5,624), and California (2,824).</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> Because of the United States&rsquo; role in ending World Wars I and II, many Luxembourgers hold a favorable view of the US. <span>More than 5,000 American soldiers, including Gen. George S. Patton, are buried at the American Military Cemetery near the capital, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. </span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On February 23, 1962, the US and Luxembourg signed the Luxembourg Friendship Establishment and Navigation Treaty to improve trade relations, promote mutual respect for human rights, and preserve respect for property established on the other&rsquo;s land.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1964, an income tax treaty signed by the two countries entered into force which established laws regarding income taxes and property. This has led to increased bilateral trade.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In November 1993, an agreement between the US and Luxembourg improved social security protection for people who work or have worked in both countries.</div> <div> <a href="http://www.ssa.gov/international/Agreement_Pamphlets/luxmburg.html"><font color="#0000ff">Totalization Agreement with Luxembourg</font></a> (Social Security Online)</div>
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Current U.S. Relations with Luxembourg
<p> <b>Noted Luxembourgian-Americans</b></p> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Athletes</b></div> <div> <b>Chris Evert: </b>A former <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_WTA_number_1_ranked_players" title="List of WTA number 1 ranked players"><font color="#0000ff">world number 1</font></a> professional <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennis" title="Tennis"><font color="#0000ff">tennis</font></a> player, Evert won 18 <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Slam_%28tennis%29" title="Grand Slam (tennis)"><font color="#0000ff">Grand Slam</font></a> singles championships. Her great-grandparents on her father&rsquo;s side were immigrants from Luxembourg.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Science</b></div> <div> <b>Paul Lauterbur: </b>The recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology, his work led to the invention of magnetic resonance imaging. Lauterbur&rsquo;s father emigrated from Luxembourg and settled in Ohio where Paul was born.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Public Service</b></div> <div> <b>Richard Kneip</b>: He served as governor of South Dakota between 1971 and 1978 and is a Democrat. He also served as ambassador to Singapore from 1978 to 1980. Kneip was born in Minnesota, but his roots are in Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Dennis Hastert</b>: He served as a member of the US House of Representatives for Illinois from 1987 to 2007, and was Speaker of the House from 1999 to 2007.&nbsp;Hastert is a Republican. Hastert&rsquo;s great-grandfather emigrated from Luxembourg to the United States in 1868.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Arts/Entertainment/Media:</b></div> <div> <b>Loretta Young: </b>She became an actress at the age of three.&nbsp;Young won an Academy Award for her performance in the 1947 film <i>The Farmer&rsquo;s Daughter </i>and starred in her own television show <i>The Loretta Young Show,</i> which launched in 1953. Young was born in Utah and is a descendant of Luxembourgian emigrants.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Hugo Gernsback:</b> He published the first science fiction magazine, and is sometimes known as &ldquo;The Father of Science Fiction.&rdquo; He was born in Luxembourg City in 1884, but migrated to the US in 1905 and became a naturalized citizen.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Edward Steichen:</b> He is recognized for his photography in magazines such as <i>Camera Work</i>, <i>Vogue</i>, and <i>Vanity Fair</i>. He also was also a painter,&nbsp;and art gallery and museum curator.Steichen was born in 1879 in Luxembourg, but migrated to the US in 1881. He became a naturalized citizen in 1900.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> Relations between the US and Luxembourg are characterized as &ldquo;strong&rdquo; by the US State Department. The two nations share membership in organization such as NATO, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In the 2000 US Census, 45,139 people identified themselves as being of Luxembourg ancestry.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On January 1, 2002, the Treaty on Open Skies was brought into force between the US and European Union countries including Luxembourg. Its purpose is to allow unarmed planes to fly over&nbsp;participating countries.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2003, Luxembourg opposed the US-led war in Iraq, along with Germany, France and Belgium, forming the &ldquo;coalition of the unwilling.&rdquo; Efforts have since been made to repair these relations.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2006, 23,781 Americans visited Luxembourg. Tourism has grown steadily since it fell off between 2002-2003, when the number of tourists shrank from 24,356 to 20,587.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2006, 12,202 Luxembourgers visited the US. Tourism has grown erratically since 2002, when 9,646 Luxembourgers came to America.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> During the 2008 elections, Luxembourg Prime Minster Juncker supported Barack Obama&rsquo;s candidacy. In addition, Juncker predicted that US-Luxembourg ties would remain the same despite a change in presidency..Juncker also supports Obama&rsquo;s goals of reducing nuclear warheads with a new agreement that will replace the expired Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.luxamculturalsociety.org/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg American Cultural Society</font></a></div>
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Where Does the Money Flow
<p> In 2009, the US exported $1.29 billion in goods to Luxembourg and imported $442.6 million worth of goods. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts exports increased from the US totaled $3.21 billion to $ 4.15 billion from 2006 to 2009. Medicinal equipment also increased from $28.5 billion to $416 billion from 2006 to 2009.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Other US exports to Luxembourg included synthetic rubber-primary which increased from $14.7 million to $42.9 million. Luxembourg is home to a Goodyear Dunlop Tire Plant. A cause of the increased export of synthetic rubber may be the establishment of the Luxembourg Mounting Center, a new branch of Goodyear Dunlop.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> US exports of other household goods have moved up from $3.1 million to $16.1 million. <span>&nbsp;US exports for parts for civilian aircraft also increased, up from $110.3 million to $416 million. A sharp increase in exports was seen from 2008 to 2009 for medicinal equipment, which increased from $10.3 million to $416.7 million. </span></div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> A sudden drop in US exports to Luxembourg between 2008 and 2009 included unmanufactured agricultural farming, down from $9.3 million to $264 ,000; iron and steel mill products, which decreased from $1.2 million to $218,000; other industrial supplies, falling from $49.7 million to $14.4 million; and electrical apparatus, which dropped from $53.6 million to $33.6 million.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> US imports for iron and steel products, except advanced manufactures, dropped from $91.9 billion to $75.7 billion between 2006 and 2009.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> From 2006 to 2009, US imports of <span>automotive tires and tubes, decreased from $12.56 million to $3.2 million due to the energy crisis between 2003 and 2008 and the global financial crisis from 2008 and 2010. As a result of these two situations, US car manufacturers made fewer cars and required fewer automotive parts.</span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A decrease in US imports of finished metal shapes and advanced manufacturing (except steel) was also noted between 2006 and 2009. Imports declined from $33.4 million to $12.4 million. This is due to President George W. Bush&rsquo;s High Growth Job Training Initiative for Advanced Manufacturing, which emphasized domestic production and decreasing reliance on imports. Under the Initiative, the US Department of Labor has invested in 34 projects worth $70 million. Goals of the program include expanding youth in the workforce and skills needed in the Advanced Manufacturing sector.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Within the same period, other US imports on the decline include<span>finished textile industrial supplies, which decreased from $37.8 million to $23.5 million; ; and measuring, testing and control instruments, which fell from $20.8 million to $2.6 million.. </span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The US does not give foreign aid or security assistance funding to Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/product/enduse/imports/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Imports from Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/product/enduse/exports/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Exports to Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.state.gov/t/pm/64815.htm"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg: Security Assistance</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.buyusa.gov/luxembourg/en/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg - A Great Place To Do Business</font></a> (BUYUSA.gov)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with Luxembourg</font></a> (US Census Bureau)</div> <div> <a href="http://luxembourgbusiness.org/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg American Chamber of Commerce</font></a></div>
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Controversies
<p> <b>Luxembourg Finally Agrees to EU Changes </b></p> <div> In December 2007, the European Union agreed to change the way it levies taxes on electronic services, including sales of online services and goods.&nbsp;Luxembourg, long caught up on controversy for being a tax haven, was the last country to agree to the new changes. Some large US companies, such as Amazon.com and PayPal, were attracted to Luxembourg because of its low sales- or value-added tax of 15%, which is the minimum allowed under EU rules. Luxembourg had also been at the center of a controversy involving foreign investors, who could avoid interest tax on their savings by investing there. In 2005, the country was forced to apply a minimum withholding tax on savings interest.</div> <div> <a href="http://iht.com/articles/2007/12/04/business/vat.php"><font color="#0000ff">EU agrees to overhaul taxation of e-services</font></a> (by Stephen Castle, New York Times)</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Dispute Concerning World Bank President Wolfowitz</b></div> <div> In 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz was caught helping his girlfriend in the Bank get a higher salary. Despite this violation, President George W. Bush and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson still supported Wolfowitz. Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker ,along with the European Union, wanted to see the president change. However, the EU does not want to fight with the US. Additionally, the US and the EU have a tacit agreement in which the US decides the leaders in the World Bank and the EU decides the leaders in the International Monetary Fund. After a World Bank investigation, additional accusations were made that led to Wolfiwitz&rsquo;s forced resignation in June 2007.</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz#Wolfowitz.27s_leadership_of_the_World_Bank_Group"><font color="#0000ff">Paul Wolfowitz</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Luxembourg Among Countries Pressing for Greater EU Military Cooperation</b></div> <div> In April 2003, the four European countries that had opposed the US-led war in Iraq &ndash; Germany, France, Belgium and Luxembourg &ndash; sparked controversy when leaders from the countries met to strengthen their military cooperation. The move was meant to re-launch European or EU defense, which some interpreted as being anti-US or anti-NATO.&nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/04/29/eu.defense/index.html"><font color="#0000ff">Anti-war 4 &lsquo;relaunch&rsquo; EU defense</font></a> (CNN)</div>
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Human Rights
<p> Luxembourg&rsquo;s government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, according to the State Department. Problems reported by US officials included prison overcrowding, domestic violence, child abuse and human trafficking.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Overcrowding in the Schrassig prison remains a problem. This overcrowding has been blamed for a fire that was started by refused asylum seekers. They have since been moved to a larger area of the prison.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The law prohibits domestic violence, and the government effectively enforced it. The law is gender neutral and provides that a batterer will be removed from the residence for 10 days (and can be extended an additional three months). Penalties may include fines and imprisonment. If a person approaches a nongovernmental organization (NGO) for assistance, the police are required to investigate. There were approximately 400 cases of police intervention relating to spousal abuse during the year and 200 police expulsions of the abusing spouse.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A physicians&rsquo; organization estimated that approximately 200 cases of child abuse were reported in 2006, resulting in about 60 children receiving medical treatment.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg is a destination for women trafficked transnationally who are sexually exploited. Trafficking occurs from mainly Russia, Ukraine, and Nigeria. Alhough trafficking occurs, the government is not involved and has taken measures to comply with international standards. The UN Refugee Agency reported that the Grand Duchy has been enacting legislation against such action and continues to prosecute trafficking crimes. During the period of the report, seven offenders were convicted with sentences of imprisonment.</div> <div> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eur/136043.htm"><font color="#0000ff">US State Department</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">Amnesty International</font></a></div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors
<p> Note: On Oct 8, 1931, during Gibson&rsquo;s tenure (under his first appointment) as non-resident Minister, Gibson introduced George P. Waller to the Minister of State in Luxembourg, in Waller&rsquo;s capacity as Second Secretary of Legation and Consul; Gibson then returned to Brussels Oct 9, 1931, leaving Waller in charge at Luxembourg, the Department of State having previously authorized the Consul and Second Secretary at that post to act as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim in the absence of the Minister and First Secretary. The status of the post at Luxembourg as a resident Legation was confirmed by an instruction dated Jun 14, 1952.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Stanford Newel</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 5, 1903</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 17, 1903</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jun 25, 1905</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Nov 16, 1903.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> David J. Hill</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 15, 1905</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Aug 17, 1905</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jun 10, 1908</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Arthur M. Beaupre</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 2, 1908</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 8, 1908</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge at The Hague, Sep 25, 1911</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Lloyd Bryce</div> <div> Appointment: Aug 12, 1911</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 7, 1911</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge at The Hague, Sep 10, 1913</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Henry van Dyke</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 27, 1913</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 20, 1913</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Jan 15, 1917</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John W. Garrett</div> <div> Appointment: Aug 23, 1917</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: [Nov 11, 1917]</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Jun 18, 1919</div> <div> Note: Transmitted credentials by note on Nov 11, 1917. Also accredited to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William Phillips</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 3, 1920</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 18, 1920</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Apr 11, 1922</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Richard M. Tobin</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 27, 1923</div> <div> Note: Commissioned to the Netherlands and Luxembourg; did not serve under this appointment.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Henry P. Fletcher</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 5, 1923</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 29, 1923</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Mar 25, 1924</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 12, 1923. Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William Phillips</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 29, 1924</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 12, 1924</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Mar 1, 1927</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Hugh S. Gibson</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 17, 1927</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 19, 1927</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Jun 11, 1933</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Dave Hennen Morris</div> <div> Appointment: May 18, 1933</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1933</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, May 5, 1937</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Hugh S. Gibson</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 13, 1937</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 15, 1937</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Jun 15, 1938</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Joseph E. Davies</div> <div> Appointment: May 14, 1938</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 26, 1938</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Nov 30, 1939</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John Cudahy</div> <div> Appointment: Jan 12, 1940</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Feb 12, 1940</div> <div> Termination of Mission: German forces occupied Luxembourg, May 10, 1940; left post Jul 18, 1940</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels. George P. Waller was serving as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim when Legation Luxembourg was closed, Jul 15, 1940.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Jay Pierrepont Moffat</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 11, 1941</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Mar 10, 1941</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Died at Ottawa, Jan 24, 1943</div> <div> Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in Canada; accredited also to Canada; resident at Ottawa.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ray Atherton</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 8, 1943</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 10, 1943</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Government of Luxembourg transferred to England, Oct 14, 1943 Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in Canada; accredited also to Canada and Denmark; resident at Ottawa.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Nov 12, 1943</div> <div> Note: Commissioned to serve near the Government of Luxembourg established in the United Kingdom, where Biddle was accredited to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Yugoslavia; took oath of office as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Luxembourg after he left London and did not return to post.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Rudolf E. Schoenfeld</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 21, 1944</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Superseded, Nov 1, 1944</div> <div> Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in the United Kingdom; resident at London. No record has been found of the issuance or presentation of a letter of credence. Schoenfeld&rsquo;s designation as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires to Luxembourg ceased on Nov 1, 1944, when Sawyer presented his letter of credence in London. Legation Luxembourg had meanwhile been reestablished Sep 23, 1944, with Winthrop S. Green as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Charles Sawyer</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 21, 1944</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 1, 1944</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Nov 20, 1945</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Alan G. Kirk</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 1, 1946</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Apr 24, 1946</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, May 6, 1949</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Perle Mesta</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 6, 1949</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 21, 1949</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 13, 1953</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 12, 1953</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 1, 1953</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Dec 20, 1956</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 25, 1956.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Vinton Chapin</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 3, 1957</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 29, 1957</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 31, 1960</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A. Burks Summers</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 24, 1960</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 16, 1960</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 1, 1961</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James Wine</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 27, 1961</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 26, 1961</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 24, 1962</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William R. Rivkin</div> <div> Appointment: Nov 5, 1962</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 18, 1962</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jun 7, 1965</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Mar 12, 1963.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Patricia Roberts Harris</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 4, 1965</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 7, 1965</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Sep 22, 1967</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> George J. Feldman</div> <div> Appointment: Oct 18, 1967</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 20, 1967</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 7, 1969</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Kingdon Gould, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: May 27, 1969</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 11, 1969</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 2, 1972</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ruth Lewis Farkas</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 27, 1973</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 11, 1973</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 18, 1976</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Rosemary L. Ginn</div> <div> Appointment: May 21, 1976</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jun 8, 1976</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, May 23, 1977</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James G. Lowenstein</div> <div> Appointment: May 26, 1977</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jun 21, 1977</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 22, 1981</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John E. Dolibois</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 28, 1981</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 12, 1981</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 17, 1985</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Jean Broward Shevlin Gerard</div> <div> Appointment: Oct 17, 1985</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 30, 1985</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 27, 1990</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Frederick Morris Bush</div> <div> Note: Nomination returned after the Aug 1989 recess and not resubmitted.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Edward Morgan Rowell</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 1, 1990</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 10, 1990</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Aug 3, 1994</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Clay Constantinou</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 7, 1994</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 7, 1994</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 30, 1999</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James Catherwood Hormel</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 10, 1999</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 8, 1999</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 1, 2001</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; an earlier nomination of Oct 6, 1997, was not acted upon by the Senate.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Note: Gerald J. Loftus served as Charge d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim Jan 2001&ndash;Apr 2002</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Peter Terpeluk, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 1, 2002</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Apr 30, 2002</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Jul 11, 2005</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ann Louise Wagner</div> <div> Appointment: June 21, 2005</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: June 16, 2005</div> <div> Termination of Mission: 2009</div>
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Luxembourg's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Wolzfeld, Jean-Louis

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg—a tiny (area: 998.6 miles2/2,586.4 km2) landlocked nation sandwiched between France, Germany and Belgium—sent a new ambassador to Washington last fall who has served in the U.S. before. Jean-Louis Wolzfeld presented his credentials to President Obama on September 19, 2012, succeeding Jean-Paul Senninger, who had served since August 2008. Wolzfeld is concurrently accredited as Luxembourg's ambassador to Canada.

 

Born in July 1951 in Luxembourg, Wolzfeld earned his undergraduate degree at the Institute of Translation and Interpretation at the University of the Sarre, in  Sarrebruck, Germany, and two Masters Degrees from the University of Paris I in International Public Law and in European Law.

 

Joining the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1977, Wolzfeld served early assignments as an attaché, as secretary in the office of international economic relations, and as a delegate at the 34th UN General Assembly in 1979. From 1981 to 1986 he was deputy permanent representative to the International Organizations in Geneva, Switzerland, serving as vice president of the Contracting Parties of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986.

 

Ten years into his diplomatic career, Wolzfeld was named to his first ambassadorship, serving as his country's first ambassador to Japan from 1987 to 1993, with a concurrent appointment as ambassador to South Korea for part of that time. Returning to New York, Wolzfeld served as permanent representative to the U.N. from 1993 to 1998. In 1997, as chairman of the European Union delegations to the U.N., it fell to Wolzfeld to publically chastise the U.S. Congress for voting to refuse to pay a billion dollars in back dues as a protest against abortion.

 

Back in Europe, Wolzfeld served as director for political affairs at the Foreign Ministry from 1998 to 2002. He then served as ambassador to the United Kingdom, resident in London from 2002 to 2013 and concurrently accredited to Ireland, Italy, Malta and Iceland.

 

Wolzfeld speaks French, English, German, Italian, Spanish and Luxembourgish (a Germanic language spoken mainly in that country). He is not married.

 

To Learn More:

Official Biography

A Grand Duchy Christmas and Amb. Jean-Louis Wolzfeld (by Gary Tischler, The Georgetowner)

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Luxembourg's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
<p> <a href="http://washington.mae.lu/en"><span><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg&rsquo;s Embassy in the US</font></span></a></p>
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U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg

Stroum, Cynthia
ambassador-image

The American ambassadorship to Luxembourg has long been reserved as a post for rewarding political friends and benefactors of presidents. In the last 50 years, only three out of 21 U.S. ambassadors to the tiny European country have been career diplomats. Cynthia Stroum, who was sworn in as Ambassador to Luxembourg December 7, 2009, and announced her resignation on January 12, 2011 (effective January 31), was not one of them.

 
One of President Barack Obama’s biggest fundraisers, Stroum hails from a prominent Jewish family in Seattle whose patriarch was her father, Sam Stroum, a wealthy businessman (one-time owner of Schuck’s Auto Supply) and philanthropist (described as the “godfather of Seattle giving”). During the 1990s alone, her father and mother, Althea, reportedly gave $40 million to arts, educational, medical, human services and religious organizations, including the establishment of a $9 million foundation through the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle and a generous gift to help build Benaroya Hall, the home of Seattle’s symphony. Sam Stroum was also credited for helping save the Seattle symphony from going bankrupt.
 
Cynthia Stroum earned a Bachelor of Arts in public relations and journalism from the University of Southern California. Her professional career has included working in the television and film industries, although she is best known for helping run her family’s holding company, Sam Stroum Enterprises.
 
Stroum has been an angel investor in more than 20 technology, biotechnology and retail start-up companies, including Starbucks Coffee Company. She also has been active on Broadway, helping produce the 2004 production of A Raisin in the Sun, which earned her a Tony nomination.

She has served on the board of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and as the founding chairman of the board of the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN). She has also served on the board of the USC Shoah Foundation Institute.
 
Stroum served on President Obama’s finance committee during the presidential campaign. She was one of his key bundlers, pulling in at least $500,000 from numerous individual donors, according to OpenSecrets.org. She personally donated $10,000 to Obama’s presidential inauguration.
 
Stroum has been a major donor to Democratic Senators Maria Cantwell and Patty Murray, both of Washington, contributing $10,000 to each. Cantwell gave Stroum a “Woman of Valor” award at a private fundraising luncheon. Stroum has made four-figure donations to Senators Barbara Boxer (D-CA) and Jon Tester (D-MT), as well as to former Senator John Edwards (D-NC).
 
Stroum is a single mother with one daughter.
 
Stroum is credited with getting President Obama hooked on Fran’s Chocolates smoked salt caramels in milk chocolate.
 

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg

Mandell, Robert
ambassador-image

On June 28, 2011, President Barack Obama announced his intention to replace one top donor with another in making his latest pick for ambassador to Luxembourg: Florida real estate developer Robert A. Mandell. Mandell was sworn in on October 25, 2011.

 
Obama first went with Cynthia Stroum, a Seattle investor and Obama bundler who resigned in February after a State Department report found Stroum had turned the U.S. embassy in Luxembourg into “a state of dysfunction.” Words like “bullying,” “hostile,” and “intimidating” were used to describe Stroum by Foreign Service officers serving under her.
 
Mandell is a native of Florida who earned his college and law degrees from the University of Florida. He also took part in the Owner Management Program at Harvard Business School.
 
A developer by profession, with no prior diplomatic experience, Mandell served as chairman and CEO of The Greater Construction Corp. from 1998 until 2005. He purchased his father’s business, Greater Homes, in 2005 and turned it into Greater Properties, Inc., a mall development company. He also operates Meritage Homes of Central Florida, which has built more than 20 residential communities in Orlando, St. Cloud and Winter Garden.
 
Mandell has served on the board of directors of Florida Hospital, the Burnham Institute for Medical Research of La Jolla, California, and the Vermont Studio Center. He also has served on the Audit and Finance Committee of the Adventist Health System and as trustee for the OK Corrall Ranch, Colorado,
 
He has been a member of the Orange County Chairman’s Transportation Commission and the Orange County Public Schools’ Blue Ribbon Panel on Education. 
 
In 2010, Obama appointed Mandell to the President’s Export Council, a White House group that advises on matters of international trade.
 
During the 2008 presidential campaign, he donated more than $30,000 to Obama’s presidential campaign. Mandell also donated $50,000 to Obama’s inauguration committee. In addition, he has given hundreds of thousands of dollars to Democratic candidates since 1992.
 
 
 
 

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Overview
<p> Luxembourg is a small European country surrounded by Belgium, West Germany and France. Though the area was originally settled by Celts and Romans, Luxembourgers consider themselves a culturally distinct people. Historically, they have been ruled by dynasties, such as the Bourbons, Habsburgs, and Hohenzollerns, and fallen under French, Austrian and German control at times. Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy in 1354, and in 1815, the country was granted Grand Duchy status by the Congress of Vienna. Luxembourg achieved full political independence in 1839, but was not recognized as such until 1867, when it became politically neutral. During this period, economic problems resulted in a massive emigration to the US. Germany occupied Luxembourg during World Wars I and II, and after the Second World War, Luxembourg became both a member of NATO and a founding member of the European Union. Luxembourg has become a very prosperous nation, offering tax havens to millions of investors worldwide while also engaging in a Double Tax Treaty with the US to improve trade. It also has become a diplomatic haven for contributors to the winning party in U.S. presidential elections. Only three of the last 21 U.S. ambassadors to Luxembourg have been career diplomats.</p>
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Basic Information
<p> Lay of the Land: Residents of this teardrop-shaped country surrounded by Belgium, West Germany, and France consider themselves a culturally distinct people.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Population: 487,751</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant (Lutheran, Calvinist) 2.0%, Muslim 1.5%, Orthodox Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%, non-religious 5.0%.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ethnic Groups: Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other European 7.3%, other 5.2%.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Languages: Luxembourgish 64.9% (national language) French 2.8% (administrative language), German (administrative language) 2.2%, English.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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History
<p> The history of Luxembourg dates back to Celtic and Roman times. The territory was once ruled by Charles the Great, but began its history in the year 963. Its first ruler, Siegfried, took control of the Luxembourg Castle which served as a sanctuary and watchtower. Soon a surrounding town&nbsp;developed under different rulers.&nbsp;</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The dynasty in Luxembourg protected several Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Bohemia and Archbishops of Trier and Mainz, and from the Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance, the region was called <span>Lucilinburhuc, Lutzburg, L&uuml;tzelburg, Luccelemburc, Lichtburg, among other names. It became officially known as Luxembourg in 1060.</span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The country remained an independent fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire until 1354, when Emperor Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy under the Crown of Bohemia. In 1437, Luxembourg&rsquo;s royal family became extinct in the male line, and the duchy and castles were held by the Bohemian princess Elizabeth of Gorlitz, who was childless.&nbsp;In 1443, she was forced to give territory to her powerful neighbor, Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. Although he had captured the region, he allowed administrative duties to be carried out by local dukes or duchesses.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Elisabeth II, Duchess of Luxembourg, gave up her title to Charles, successor of Philip III. This allowed Charles to add the title of Duke of Luxembourg to his existing title of Duke of Burgundy.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Duke Charles continued to conquer more territories to add to Burgundy. However, Charles was defeated and his possession of Luxembourg was claimed by France. However, Maximilian I recaptured the territory for the Burgundy empire during his reign from 1477 to 1482.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1556, Charles III of Luxembourg gave up his thron,e which permitted the duchy to become part of the Spanish Netherlands.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The Spanish Netherlands controlled the region until 1679 when Louis XIV of France invaded Luxembourg. However, France was unable to manage the territory, which returned to the Spanish Netherlands in 1697 by the Treaty of Ryswick.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> From 1701 to 1714, the War of Spanish Succession led to Austrian rule of Luxembourg. Austrian rule lasted until 1795 when France conquered Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> France was defeated in 1814. In order to decide the fate of French territories, the Congress of Vienna commenced on June 9, 1815. At this time, Luxembourg became the &ldquo;Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,&rdquo; a province of the Netherlands under King William I. During this period, the Netherlands was under a greater grouping known as the German Confederation.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg citizens revolted against William I because of his heavy taxes. As a result, external powers intervened in the conflict and split the territory between the German Confederation and Belgium. The First Treaty of London in 1839 established the independence of Belgium and the independence of the German portion of Luxembourg. However, William I of Netherlands refused this Treaty.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> This led to the Luxembourg Crisis, a dispute between France and Prussia about Luxembourg&rsquo;s political status. The dispute ended with the Second Treaty of London in 1867 in which Luxembourg was recognized as independent, and politically neutral.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg fell increasingly under Germany&rsquo;s influence and was occupied by Germany from 1914 to 1918, and again from 1940 to 1944. After the end of World War II, Luxembourg abandoned neutrality and became a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. Luxembourg also became a founding member of the European Union, which was formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). During the second half of the 20th century, Luxembourg became one of the world&rsquo;s richest countries, buoyed by a successful financial services sector, political stability and integration with other European nations.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1995, Luxembourg&rsquo;s Prime Minister Jacques Santer became president of the European Commission. However, he later had to resign over accusations of corruption.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1999, Luxembourg adopted the euro as its currency.&nbsp;In October 2000, Grand Duke Henri succeeded his father, Grand Duke Jean, when Jean announced his plans to abdicate after a 35-year reign.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On September 10, 2004, Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker became the semi-permanent president of the group of finance ministers from the 12 countries that share the euro, a role dubbed &ldquo;Mr. Euro.&rdquo;&nbsp;On July 10, 2005, after threats of resignation by Prime Minister Juncker, the proposed European Constitution was approved by 56.52% of voters.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2008, parliament proposed a bill that supported the use of euthanasia. This led to a constitutional crisis because the Grand Duke Henri threatened to veto this bill despite a majority vote in parliament. As a result, Prime Minister Juncker suggested a ceremonial position for the Grand Duke in which he would no longer have power to influence laws.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> As of 2008, Luxembourg had achieved a per capita Gross Domestic Product of $111,743, making it the third richest country in the world.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxembourg_history"><font color="#0000ff">History of Luxembourg</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_of_Luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">List of Monarchs of Luxembourg</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Luxembourg#Medieval_Luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg</font></a> (New World Encyclopedia)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.timelineindex.com/content/select/926/45,142,926"><font color="#0000ff">Timeline of Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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Luxembourg's Newspapers
<p> <a href="http://le-jeudi.editpress.lu/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Le Jeudi</font></a><font size="2"> (French)</font></p> <div> <a href="http://www.lavoix.lu/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Le Voix de Luxembourg</font></a><font size="2"> (French)</font></div> <div> <a href="http://luxembourgglobe.com/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Globe</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.land.lu/site2009/"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Land</font></a><font size="2"> (German)</font></div> <div> <a href="http://www.abyznewslinks.com/luxem.htm"><font color="#0000ff" size="2">Luxembourg Newspapers and News Media Guide</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/luxembou.htm"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg&rsquo;s Newspapers</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://bonjour.news352.lu/"><font color="#0000ff">News 352</font></a> (French)</div>
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History of U.S. Relations with Luxembourg
<p> The first Luxembourgers came to New York City (New Amsterdam at the time) with the Dutch in 1630.&nbsp;</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The most prominent Luxembourger in pre-revolutionary America was Father Raphael de Luxembourg, who was appointed by the King of France to represent royal interests in the French territory of Louisiana in 1723.&nbsp;Father Raphael became known for converting the Native Americans in Louisiana to Christianity, as well as his efforts in securing just recompense for blacks and Native Americans laboring in the territory.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The largest wave of Luxembourgers immigrated in the mid-19th century. An estimated 45,000 Luxembourgers immigrated between 1841 and 1891, with the greatest numbers arriving in the 1880&rsquo;s. They settled primarily in the Midwest, drawn by the promise of inexpensive, fertile land.&nbsp;</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> During this period, the US officially recognized Luxembourg under President Rutherford Hayes on May 31, 1878.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Immigration slowed in the 20th century, although 200 to 300 Luxembourger Jews fled to America between 1937-1940. The states containing the largest Luxembourger American populations are Illinois (6,963), Wisconsin (6,580), Minnesota (5,867), Iowa (5,624), and California (2,824).</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> Because of the United States&rsquo; role in ending World Wars I and II, many Luxembourgers hold a favorable view of the US. <span>More than 5,000 American soldiers, including Gen. George S. Patton, are buried at the American Military Cemetery near the capital, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. </span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On February 23, 1962, the US and Luxembourg signed the Luxembourg Friendship Establishment and Navigation Treaty to improve trade relations, promote mutual respect for human rights, and preserve respect for property established on the other&rsquo;s land.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 1964, an income tax treaty signed by the two countries entered into force which established laws regarding income taxes and property. This has led to increased bilateral trade.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In November 1993, an agreement between the US and Luxembourg improved social security protection for people who work or have worked in both countries.</div> <div> <a href="http://www.ssa.gov/international/Agreement_Pamphlets/luxmburg.html"><font color="#0000ff">Totalization Agreement with Luxembourg</font></a> (Social Security Online)</div>
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Current U.S. Relations with Luxembourg
<p> <b>Noted Luxembourgian-Americans</b></p> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Athletes</b></div> <div> <b>Chris Evert: </b>A former <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_WTA_number_1_ranked_players" title="List of WTA number 1 ranked players"><font color="#0000ff">world number 1</font></a> professional <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennis" title="Tennis"><font color="#0000ff">tennis</font></a> player, Evert won 18 <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Slam_%28tennis%29" title="Grand Slam (tennis)"><font color="#0000ff">Grand Slam</font></a> singles championships. Her great-grandparents on her father&rsquo;s side were immigrants from Luxembourg.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Science</b></div> <div> <b>Paul Lauterbur: </b>The recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology, his work led to the invention of magnetic resonance imaging. Lauterbur&rsquo;s father emigrated from Luxembourg and settled in Ohio where Paul was born.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> <b>Public Service</b></div> <div> <b>Richard Kneip</b>: He served as governor of South Dakota between 1971 and 1978 and is a Democrat. He also served as ambassador to Singapore from 1978 to 1980. Kneip was born in Minnesota, but his roots are in Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Dennis Hastert</b>: He served as a member of the US House of Representatives for Illinois from 1987 to 2007, and was Speaker of the House from 1999 to 2007.&nbsp;Hastert is a Republican. Hastert&rsquo;s great-grandfather emigrated from Luxembourg to the United States in 1868.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Arts/Entertainment/Media:</b></div> <div> <b>Loretta Young: </b>She became an actress at the age of three.&nbsp;Young won an Academy Award for her performance in the 1947 film <i>The Farmer&rsquo;s Daughter </i>and starred in her own television show <i>The Loretta Young Show,</i> which launched in 1953. Young was born in Utah and is a descendant of Luxembourgian emigrants.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Hugo Gernsback:</b> He published the first science fiction magazine, and is sometimes known as &ldquo;The Father of Science Fiction.&rdquo; He was born in Luxembourg City in 1884, but migrated to the US in 1905 and became a naturalized citizen.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Edward Steichen:</b> He is recognized for his photography in magazines such as <i>Camera Work</i>, <i>Vogue</i>, and <i>Vanity Fair</i>. He also was also a painter,&nbsp;and art gallery and museum curator.Steichen was born in 1879 in Luxembourg, but migrated to the US in 1881. He became a naturalized citizen in 1900.</div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> Relations between the US and Luxembourg are characterized as &ldquo;strong&rdquo; by the US State Department. The two nations share membership in organization such as NATO, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In the 2000 US Census, 45,139 people identified themselves as being of Luxembourg ancestry.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> On January 1, 2002, the Treaty on Open Skies was brought into force between the US and European Union countries including Luxembourg. Its purpose is to allow unarmed planes to fly over&nbsp;participating countries.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2003, Luxembourg opposed the US-led war in Iraq, along with Germany, France and Belgium, forming the &ldquo;coalition of the unwilling.&rdquo; Efforts have since been made to repair these relations.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2006, 23,781 Americans visited Luxembourg. Tourism has grown steadily since it fell off between 2002-2003, when the number of tourists shrank from 24,356 to 20,587.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> In 2006, 12,202 Luxembourgers visited the US. Tourism has grown erratically since 2002, when 9,646 Luxembourgers came to America.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> During the 2008 elections, Luxembourg Prime Minster Juncker supported Barack Obama&rsquo;s candidacy. In addition, Juncker predicted that US-Luxembourg ties would remain the same despite a change in presidency..Juncker also supports Obama&rsquo;s goals of reducing nuclear warheads with a new agreement that will replace the expired Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.luxamculturalsociety.org/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg American Cultural Society</font></a></div>
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Where Does the Money Flow
<p> In 2009, the US exported $1.29 billion in goods to Luxembourg and imported $442.6 million worth of goods. Civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts exports increased from the US totaled $3.21 billion to $ 4.15 billion from 2006 to 2009. Medicinal equipment also increased from $28.5 billion to $416 billion from 2006 to 2009.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Other US exports to Luxembourg included synthetic rubber-primary which increased from $14.7 million to $42.9 million. Luxembourg is home to a Goodyear Dunlop Tire Plant. A cause of the increased export of synthetic rubber may be the establishment of the Luxembourg Mounting Center, a new branch of Goodyear Dunlop.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> US exports of other household goods have moved up from $3.1 million to $16.1 million. <span>&nbsp;US exports for parts for civilian aircraft also increased, up from $110.3 million to $416 million. A sharp increase in exports was seen from 2008 to 2009 for medicinal equipment, which increased from $10.3 million to $416.7 million. </span></div> <div> <b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div> A sudden drop in US exports to Luxembourg between 2008 and 2009 included unmanufactured agricultural farming, down from $9.3 million to $264 ,000; iron and steel mill products, which decreased from $1.2 million to $218,000; other industrial supplies, falling from $49.7 million to $14.4 million; and electrical apparatus, which dropped from $53.6 million to $33.6 million.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> US imports for iron and steel products, except advanced manufactures, dropped from $91.9 billion to $75.7 billion between 2006 and 2009.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> From 2006 to 2009, US imports of <span>automotive tires and tubes, decreased from $12.56 million to $3.2 million due to the energy crisis between 2003 and 2008 and the global financial crisis from 2008 and 2010. As a result of these two situations, US car manufacturers made fewer cars and required fewer automotive parts.</span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A decrease in US imports of finished metal shapes and advanced manufacturing (except steel) was also noted between 2006 and 2009. Imports declined from $33.4 million to $12.4 million. This is due to President George W. Bush&rsquo;s High Growth Job Training Initiative for Advanced Manufacturing, which emphasized domestic production and decreasing reliance on imports. Under the Initiative, the US Department of Labor has invested in 34 projects worth $70 million. Goals of the program include expanding youth in the workforce and skills needed in the Advanced Manufacturing sector.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Within the same period, other US imports on the decline include<span>finished textile industrial supplies, which decreased from $37.8 million to $23.5 million; ; and measuring, testing and control instruments, which fell from $20.8 million to $2.6 million.. </span></div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The US does not give foreign aid or security assistance funding to Luxembourg.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/product/enduse/imports/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Imports from Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/product/enduse/exports/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Exports to Luxembourg</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.state.gov/t/pm/64815.htm"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg: Security Assistance</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.buyusa.gov/luxembourg/en/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg - A Great Place To Do Business</font></a> (BUYUSA.gov)</div> <div> <a href="http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c4239.html"><font color="#0000ff">Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with Luxembourg</font></a> (US Census Bureau)</div> <div> <a href="http://luxembourgbusiness.org/"><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg American Chamber of Commerce</font></a></div>
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Controversies
<p> <b>Luxembourg Finally Agrees to EU Changes </b></p> <div> In December 2007, the European Union agreed to change the way it levies taxes on electronic services, including sales of online services and goods.&nbsp;Luxembourg, long caught up on controversy for being a tax haven, was the last country to agree to the new changes. Some large US companies, such as Amazon.com and PayPal, were attracted to Luxembourg because of its low sales- or value-added tax of 15%, which is the minimum allowed under EU rules. Luxembourg had also been at the center of a controversy involving foreign investors, who could avoid interest tax on their savings by investing there. In 2005, the country was forced to apply a minimum withholding tax on savings interest.</div> <div> <a href="http://iht.com/articles/2007/12/04/business/vat.php"><font color="#0000ff">EU agrees to overhaul taxation of e-services</font></a> (by Stephen Castle, New York Times)</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Dispute Concerning World Bank President Wolfowitz</b></div> <div> In 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz was caught helping his girlfriend in the Bank get a higher salary. Despite this violation, President George W. Bush and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson still supported Wolfowitz. Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker ,along with the European Union, wanted to see the president change. However, the EU does not want to fight with the US. Additionally, the US and the EU have a tacit agreement in which the US decides the leaders in the World Bank and the EU decides the leaders in the International Monetary Fund. After a World Bank investigation, additional accusations were made that led to Wolfiwitz&rsquo;s forced resignation in June 2007.</div> <div> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz#Wolfowitz.27s_leadership_of_the_World_Bank_Group"><font color="#0000ff">Paul Wolfowitz</font></a> (Wikipedia)</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <b>Luxembourg Among Countries Pressing for Greater EU Military Cooperation</b></div> <div> In April 2003, the four European countries that had opposed the US-led war in Iraq &ndash; Germany, France, Belgium and Luxembourg &ndash; sparked controversy when leaders from the countries met to strengthen their military cooperation. The move was meant to re-launch European or EU defense, which some interpreted as being anti-US or anti-NATO.&nbsp;</div> <div> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/04/29/eu.defense/index.html"><font color="#0000ff">Anti-war 4 &lsquo;relaunch&rsquo; EU defense</font></a> (CNN)</div>
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Human Rights
<p> Luxembourg&rsquo;s government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, according to the State Department. Problems reported by US officials included prison overcrowding, domestic violence, child abuse and human trafficking.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Overcrowding in the Schrassig prison remains a problem. This overcrowding has been blamed for a fire that was started by refused asylum seekers. They have since been moved to a larger area of the prison.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> The law prohibits domestic violence, and the government effectively enforced it. The law is gender neutral and provides that a batterer will be removed from the residence for 10 days (and can be extended an additional three months). Penalties may include fines and imprisonment. If a person approaches a nongovernmental organization (NGO) for assistance, the police are required to investigate. There were approximately 400 cases of police intervention relating to spousal abuse during the year and 200 police expulsions of the abusing spouse.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A physicians&rsquo; organization estimated that approximately 200 cases of child abuse were reported in 2006, resulting in about 60 children receiving medical treatment.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Luxembourg is a destination for women trafficked transnationally who are sexually exploited. Trafficking occurs from mainly Russia, Ukraine, and Nigeria. Alhough trafficking occurs, the government is not involved and has taken measures to comply with international standards. The UN Refugee Agency reported that the Grand Duchy has been enacting legislation against such action and continues to prosecute trafficking crimes. During the period of the report, seven offenders were convicted with sentences of imprisonment.</div> <div> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eur/136043.htm"><font color="#0000ff">US State Department</font></a></div> <div> <a href="http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/luxembourg"><font color="#0000ff">Amnesty International</font></a></div> <div> &nbsp;</div>
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors
<p> Note: On Oct 8, 1931, during Gibson&rsquo;s tenure (under his first appointment) as non-resident Minister, Gibson introduced George P. Waller to the Minister of State in Luxembourg, in Waller&rsquo;s capacity as Second Secretary of Legation and Consul; Gibson then returned to Brussels Oct 9, 1931, leaving Waller in charge at Luxembourg, the Department of State having previously authorized the Consul and Second Secretary at that post to act as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim in the absence of the Minister and First Secretary. The status of the post at Luxembourg as a resident Legation was confirmed by an instruction dated Jun 14, 1952.</p> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Stanford Newel</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 5, 1903</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 17, 1903</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jun 25, 1905</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Nov 16, 1903.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> David J. Hill</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 15, 1905</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Aug 17, 1905</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jun 10, 1908</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Arthur M. Beaupre</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 2, 1908</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 8, 1908</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge at The Hague, Sep 25, 1911</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Lloyd Bryce</div> <div> Appointment: Aug 12, 1911</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 7, 1911</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge at The Hague, Sep 10, 1913</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Henry van Dyke</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 27, 1913</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 20, 1913</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Jan 15, 1917</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John W. Garrett</div> <div> Appointment: Aug 23, 1917</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: [Nov 11, 1917]</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Jun 18, 1919</div> <div> Note: Transmitted credentials by note on Nov 11, 1917. Also accredited to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William Phillips</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 3, 1920</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 18, 1920</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left The Hague, Apr 11, 1922</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to the Netherlands; resident at The Hague.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Richard M. Tobin</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 27, 1923</div> <div> Note: Commissioned to the Netherlands and Luxembourg; did not serve under this appointment.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Henry P. Fletcher</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 5, 1923</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 29, 1923</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Mar 25, 1924</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 12, 1923. Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William Phillips</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 29, 1924</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 12, 1924</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Mar 1, 1927</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Hugh S. Gibson</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 17, 1927</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 19, 1927</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Jun 11, 1933</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Dave Hennen Morris</div> <div> Appointment: May 18, 1933</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1933</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, May 5, 1937</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Hugh S. Gibson</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 13, 1937</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 15, 1937</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Jun 15, 1938</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Joseph E. Davies</div> <div> Appointment: May 14, 1938</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 26, 1938</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Nov 30, 1939</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John Cudahy</div> <div> Appointment: Jan 12, 1940</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Feb 12, 1940</div> <div> Termination of Mission: German forces occupied Luxembourg, May 10, 1940; left post Jul 18, 1940</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Note: Also accredited to Belgium; resident at Brussels. George P. Waller was serving as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim when Legation Luxembourg was closed, Jul 15, 1940.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Jay Pierrepont Moffat</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 11, 1941</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Mar 10, 1941</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Died at Ottawa, Jan 24, 1943</div> <div> Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in Canada; accredited also to Canada; resident at Ottawa.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ray Atherton</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 8, 1943</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 10, 1943</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Government of Luxembourg transferred to England, Oct 14, 1943 Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in Canada; accredited also to Canada and Denmark; resident at Ottawa.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Nov 12, 1943</div> <div> Note: Commissioned to serve near the Government of Luxembourg established in the United Kingdom, where Biddle was accredited to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Yugoslavia; took oath of office as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Luxembourg after he left London and did not return to post.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Rudolf E. Schoenfeld</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 21, 1944</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Superseded, Nov 1, 1944</div> <div> Note: Served near the Government of Luxembourg established in the United Kingdom; resident at London. No record has been found of the issuance or presentation of a letter of credence. Schoenfeld&rsquo;s designation as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires to Luxembourg ceased on Nov 1, 1944, when Sawyer presented his letter of credence in London. Legation Luxembourg had meanwhile been reestablished Sep 23, 1944, with Winthrop S. Green as Charg&eacute; d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Charles Sawyer</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 21, 1944</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Nov 1, 1944</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, Nov 20, 1945</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Alan G. Kirk</div> <div> Appointment: Feb 1, 1946</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Apr 24, 1946</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left Brussels, May 6, 1949</div> <div> Note: Accredited also to Belgium; resident at Brussels.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Perle Mesta</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 6, 1949</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 21, 1949</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 13, 1953</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 12, 1953</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 1, 1953</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Dec 20, 1956</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 25, 1956.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Vinton Chapin</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 3, 1957</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 29, 1957</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 31, 1960</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> A. Burks Summers</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 24, 1960</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 16, 1960</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 1, 1961</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James Wine</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 27, 1961</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 26, 1961</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 24, 1962</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> William R. Rivkin</div> <div> Appointment: Nov 5, 1962</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 18, 1962</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jun 7, 1965</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Mar 12, 1963.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Patricia Roberts Harris</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 4, 1965</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 7, 1965</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Sep 22, 1967</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> George J. Feldman</div> <div> Appointment: Oct 18, 1967</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Dec 20, 1967</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 7, 1969</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Kingdon Gould, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: May 27, 1969</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jul 11, 1969</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 2, 1972</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ruth Lewis Farkas</div> <div> Appointment: Mar 27, 1973</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 11, 1973</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 18, 1976</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Rosemary L. Ginn</div> <div> Appointment: May 21, 1976</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jun 8, 1976</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, May 23, 1977</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James G. Lowenstein</div> <div> Appointment: May 26, 1977</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Jun 21, 1977</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 22, 1981</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> John E. Dolibois</div> <div> Appointment: Sep 28, 1981</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 12, 1981</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 17, 1985</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Jean Broward Shevlin Gerard</div> <div> Appointment: Oct 17, 1985</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Oct 30, 1985</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 27, 1990</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Frederick Morris Bush</div> <div> Note: Nomination returned after the Aug 1989 recess and not resubmitted.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Edward Morgan Rowell</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 1, 1990</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: May 10, 1990</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post, Aug 3, 1994</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Clay Constantinou</div> <div> Appointment: Jul 7, 1994</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 7, 1994</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 30, 1999</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> James Catherwood Hormel</div> <div> Appointment: Jun 10, 1999</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Sep 8, 1999</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 1, 2001</div> <div> Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; an earlier nomination of Oct 6, 1997, was not acted upon by the Senate.</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Note: Gerald J. Loftus served as Charge d&rsquo;Affaires ad interim Jan 2001&ndash;Apr 2002</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Peter Terpeluk, Jr.</div> <div> Appointment: Apr 1, 2002</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: Apr 30, 2002</div> <div> Termination of Mission: Jul 11, 2005</div> <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> Ann Louise Wagner</div> <div> Appointment: June 21, 2005</div> <div> Presentation of Credentials: June 16, 2005</div> <div> Termination of Mission: 2009</div>
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Luxembourg's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Wolzfeld, Jean-Louis

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg—a tiny (area: 998.6 miles2/2,586.4 km2) landlocked nation sandwiched between France, Germany and Belgium—sent a new ambassador to Washington last fall who has served in the U.S. before. Jean-Louis Wolzfeld presented his credentials to President Obama on September 19, 2012, succeeding Jean-Paul Senninger, who had served since August 2008. Wolzfeld is concurrently accredited as Luxembourg's ambassador to Canada.

 

Born in July 1951 in Luxembourg, Wolzfeld earned his undergraduate degree at the Institute of Translation and Interpretation at the University of the Sarre, in  Sarrebruck, Germany, and two Masters Degrees from the University of Paris I in International Public Law and in European Law.

 

Joining the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1977, Wolzfeld served early assignments as an attaché, as secretary in the office of international economic relations, and as a delegate at the 34th UN General Assembly in 1979. From 1981 to 1986 he was deputy permanent representative to the International Organizations in Geneva, Switzerland, serving as vice president of the Contracting Parties of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986.

 

Ten years into his diplomatic career, Wolzfeld was named to his first ambassadorship, serving as his country's first ambassador to Japan from 1987 to 1993, with a concurrent appointment as ambassador to South Korea for part of that time. Returning to New York, Wolzfeld served as permanent representative to the U.N. from 1993 to 1998. In 1997, as chairman of the European Union delegations to the U.N., it fell to Wolzfeld to publically chastise the U.S. Congress for voting to refuse to pay a billion dollars in back dues as a protest against abortion.

 

Back in Europe, Wolzfeld served as director for political affairs at the Foreign Ministry from 1998 to 2002. He then served as ambassador to the United Kingdom, resident in London from 2002 to 2013 and concurrently accredited to Ireland, Italy, Malta and Iceland.

 

Wolzfeld speaks French, English, German, Italian, Spanish and Luxembourgish (a Germanic language spoken mainly in that country). He is not married.

 

To Learn More:

Official Biography

A Grand Duchy Christmas and Amb. Jean-Louis Wolzfeld (by Gary Tischler, The Georgetowner)

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Luxembourg's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
<p> <a href="http://washington.mae.lu/en"><span><font color="#0000ff">Luxembourg&rsquo;s Embassy in the US</font></span></a></p>
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U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg

Stroum, Cynthia
ambassador-image

The American ambassadorship to Luxembourg has long been reserved as a post for rewarding political friends and benefactors of presidents. In the last 50 years, only three out of 21 U.S. ambassadors to the tiny European country have been career diplomats. Cynthia Stroum, who was sworn in as Ambassador to Luxembourg December 7, 2009, and announced her resignation on January 12, 2011 (effective January 31), was not one of them.

 
One of President Barack Obama’s biggest fundraisers, Stroum hails from a prominent Jewish family in Seattle whose patriarch was her father, Sam Stroum, a wealthy businessman (one-time owner of Schuck’s Auto Supply) and philanthropist (described as the “godfather of Seattle giving”). During the 1990s alone, her father and mother, Althea, reportedly gave $40 million to arts, educational, medical, human services and religious organizations, including the establishment of a $9 million foundation through the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle and a generous gift to help build Benaroya Hall, the home of Seattle’s symphony. Sam Stroum was also credited for helping save the Seattle symphony from going bankrupt.
 
Cynthia Stroum earned a Bachelor of Arts in public relations and journalism from the University of Southern California. Her professional career has included working in the television and film industries, although she is best known for helping run her family’s holding company, Sam Stroum Enterprises.
 
Stroum has been an angel investor in more than 20 technology, biotechnology and retail start-up companies, including Starbucks Coffee Company. She also has been active on Broadway, helping produce the 2004 production of A Raisin in the Sun, which earned her a Tony nomination.

She has served on the board of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and as the founding chairman of the board of the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN). She has also served on the board of the USC Shoah Foundation Institute.
 
Stroum served on President Obama’s finance committee during the presidential campaign. She was one of his key bundlers, pulling in at least $500,000 from numerous individual donors, according to OpenSecrets.org. She personally donated $10,000 to Obama’s presidential inauguration.
 
Stroum has been a major donor to Democratic Senators Maria Cantwell and Patty Murray, both of Washington, contributing $10,000 to each. Cantwell gave Stroum a “Woman of Valor” award at a private fundraising luncheon. Stroum has made four-figure donations to Senators Barbara Boxer (D-CA) and Jon Tester (D-MT), as well as to former Senator John Edwards (D-NC).
 
Stroum is a single mother with one daughter.
 
Stroum is credited with getting President Obama hooked on Fran’s Chocolates smoked salt caramels in milk chocolate.
 

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg

Mandell, Robert
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On June 28, 2011, President Barack Obama announced his intention to replace one top donor with another in making his latest pick for ambassador to Luxembourg: Florida real estate developer Robert A. Mandell. Mandell was sworn in on October 25, 2011.

 
Obama first went with Cynthia Stroum, a Seattle investor and Obama bundler who resigned in February after a State Department report found Stroum had turned the U.S. embassy in Luxembourg into “a state of dysfunction.” Words like “bullying,” “hostile,” and “intimidating” were used to describe Stroum by Foreign Service officers serving under her.
 
Mandell is a native of Florida who earned his college and law degrees from the University of Florida. He also took part in the Owner Management Program at Harvard Business School.
 
A developer by profession, with no prior diplomatic experience, Mandell served as chairman and CEO of The Greater Construction Corp. from 1998 until 2005. He purchased his father’s business, Greater Homes, in 2005 and turned it into Greater Properties, Inc., a mall development company. He also operates Meritage Homes of Central Florida, which has built more than 20 residential communities in Orlando, St. Cloud and Winter Garden.
 
Mandell has served on the board of directors of Florida Hospital, the Burnham Institute for Medical Research of La Jolla, California, and the Vermont Studio Center. He also has served on the Audit and Finance Committee of the Adventist Health System and as trustee for the OK Corrall Ranch, Colorado,
 
He has been a member of the Orange County Chairman’s Transportation Commission and the Orange County Public Schools’ Blue Ribbon Panel on Education. 
 
In 2010, Obama appointed Mandell to the President’s Export Council, a White House group that advises on matters of international trade.
 
During the 2008 presidential campaign, he donated more than $30,000 to Obama’s presidential campaign. Mandell also donated $50,000 to Obama’s inauguration committee. In addition, he has given hundreds of thousands of dollars to Democratic candidates since 1992.
 
 
 
 

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