United Kingdom

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Overview

No other nation on earth holds a closer relationship, or more vital historical link, with the United States than does the United Kingdom. Originally a British colony, the United States was founded largely by British settlers, whose off-spring eventually grew weary of English rule and revolted in 1776. Following independence from the UK, the newly created United States struggled at first with its former colonial master, and even fought a second war (the War of 1812) before relations gradually evolved from hostile to neutral during the 19th century. By the early 20th century, the US and UK were allies, fighting against Germany and its allies in World War I, and again during World War II, when American support for Britain proved vital for its survival. Together, American and British soldiers formed the core of Allied efforts that ultimately defeated Nazi Germany in the Second World War. US economic support after WWII also was key to the UK’s recovery from the destructive conflict, and as the Cold War unfolded against the Soviet Union, the US and UK became key partners in the defense of Western Europe through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

 
The American-British alliance continued strong even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and if anything, the events of 9/11 only brought the two governments even closer together. No other world leader was more solidly in President George W. Bush’s corner than Prime Minister Tony Blair when it came to the war on terror. British troops participated in the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. British intelligence echoed the claims of Bush administration officials that Saddam Hussein’s regime possessed weapons of mass destruction. London also provided public and private support to Washington in the handling of counter-terrorist efforts, including the controversial “renditioning” of suspected militants. Blair’s commitment to Bush’s anti-terror policies ultimately eroded British support at home, costing him his job as prime minister. Although the US-UK alliance is still quite strong, it remains to be seen what kind of bond is forged between Prime Minister Gordon Brown and President Barack Obama.
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Composed of England, Scotland, and Wales, Great Britain is an island separated from the European continent by the English Channel and the North Sea. Britain can be roughly divided into two distinct topographic regions, the lowlands in the southeast and the highlands in the west and north.

 
Population: 60.9 million
 
Religions: Anglican 38.7%, other Protestant (Methodist, Pentecostal) 18.7%, Catholic 13.3%, Muslim 2.6%, Hindu 1.0%, Sikh 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%, Buddhist 0.3%, Baha'i 0.1%, Chinese Universalist 0.1%, Spiritist 0.1%, non-religious 15%.
 
Ethnic Groups: English 77.0%, Scottish 7.9%, Welsh 4.5%, Northern Irish 2.7%, black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%.
 
Languages: English (official) 91.2%, Welsh 0.8%, Scotts 0.2%, Irish Gaelic 0.2%, Scottish Gaelic 0.1%, Angloromani 0.1%, French (regionally official), Traveler Scottish, Cornish, Romani (Vlax, Welsh), Yinglish, Polari.
 
 
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History
Stonehenge and other examples of prehistoric culture are all that remain of the earliest inhabitants of Britain. Celtic peoples occupied the British Isles before Roman invasions of the 1st century BC. When the Roman legions withdrew in the 5th century, Britain fell easy prey to the invading hordes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from Scandinavia and the Low Countries. The invasions had little effect on the Celtic peoples of Wales and Scotland. Seven large Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were established, and the original Britons were forced into Wales and Scotland.
 
It was not until the 10th century that the country finally became united under the kings of Wessex. Following the death of Edward the Confessor, a dispute about the succession arose, and William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England, defeating the Saxon king, Harold II, at the Battle of Hastings (1066). The Norman conquest introduced French law and feudalism into Britain.
 
The reign of Henry II (1154–1189) saw an increasing centralization of royal power at the expense of the nobles,.although in 1215, King John (1199–1216) was forced to sign the Magna Carta, which awarded the people, especially the nobles, certain basic rights. Edward I (1272–1307) continued the conquest of Ireland, reduced Wales to subjection, and made some gains in Scotland. In 1314, however, English forces led by Edward II were ousted from Scotland after the Battle of Bannockburn.
 
The late 13th and early 14th centuries saw the development of a separate House of Commons with tax-raising powers. Edward III’s claim to the throne of France led to the Hundred Years’ War (1338–1453) and the loss of almost all the large English territory in France. In England, the great poverty and discontent caused by the war were intensified by the Black Death, a plague that reduced the population by about one-third. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485), a struggle for the throne between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, ended in the victory of Henry Tudor (Henry VII) at Bosworth Field (1485).
 
During the reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547), the church in England asserted its independence from the Roman Catholic Church. Under Edward VI and Mary, the two extremes of religious fanaticism were reached, and it remained for Henry’s daughter, Elizabeth I (1558–1603), to set up the Church of England on a moderate basis.
 
In 1588, the Spanish Armada, a fleet sent out by Catholic King Philip II of Spain, was defeated by the English and destroyed during a storm. During Elizabeth’s reign, England became a world power. Her heir was a Stuart—James VI of Scotland—who joined the two crowns as James I (1603–1625). The Stuart kings incurred large debts and were forced either to depend on parliament for taxes or to raise money by illegal means. In 1642, war broke out between Charles I and a large segment of the parliament; Charles was defeated and executed in 1649, and the monarchy was then abolished.
 
After the death in 1658 of Oliver Cromwell, the Puritan Commonwealth fell to pieces and Charles II was placed on the throne in 1660. The struggle between the king and parliament continued, however, after the departure of Charles II. His brother, James II (1685–1688), possessed none of Charles II’s ability and was ousted by the Revolution of 1688, which confirmed the primacy of parliament. James’s daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, then ruled.
 
Queen Anne’s reign (1702–1714) was marked by the Duke of Marlborough’s victories over France in the War of the Spanish Succession. England and Scotland meanwhile were joined by the Act of Union (1707). Upon the death of Anne, the distant claims of the elector of Hanover were recognized, and he became king of Great Britain and Ireland as George I. The unwillingness of the Hanoverian kings to rule resulted in the formation by the royal ministers of a cabinet, headed by a prime minister, which directed all public business.
 
Abroad, the constant wars with France expanded the British Empire all over the globe, particularly in North America and India. This imperial growth was checked by the revolt of the American colonies (1775–1781). Struggles with France broke out again in 1793 and during the Napoleonic Wars, which ended at Waterloo in 1815.
 
The Victorian era, named after Queen Victoria (1837–1901), saw the growth of a democratic system of government that had begun with the Reform Bill of 1832. The two important wars in Victoria’s reign were the Crimean War against Russia (1854–1856) and the Boer War (1899–1902), the latter enormously extending Britain’s influence in Africa.
 
Increasing uneasiness at home and abroad marked the reign of Edward VII (1901–1910). Within four years of the accession of George V in 1910, Britain entered World War I when Germany invaded Belgium. The nation was led by coalition cabinets, headed first by Herbert Asquith and then, starting in 1916, by the Welsh statesman David Lloyd George. Postwar labor unrest culminated in the general strike of 1926.
 
King Edward VIII succeeded to the throne on January 20, 1936, after his father’s death. He abdicated on December 11, 1936 (in order to marry an American divorcée, Wallis Warfield Simpson), in favor of his brother, who became George VI.
 
The efforts of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to stem the rising threat of Nazism in Germany failed with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which was followed by Britain’s entry into World War II two days later. Chamberlain resigned the following year, leading to the formation of another coalition war cabinet by the Conservative leader, Winston Churchill, who led Britain through most of World War II.
 
Churchill resigned shortly after V-E Day, on May 8, 1945, but then formed a “caretaker” government that remained in office until after the parliamentary elections in July, which the Labour Party won overwhelmingly. The new government, formed by Clement R. Attlee, began a moderate socialist program.
 
In 1951, Churchill again became prime minister at the head of a Conservative government. George VI died on February 6, 1952, and was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth II. Churchill stepped down in 1955 in favor of Sir Anthony Eden, who resigned on grounds of ill health in 1957 and was succeeded by Harold Macmillan and Sir Alec Douglas-Home. In 1964, Harold Wilson led the Labour Party to victory. A lagging economy brought the Conservatives back to power in 1970. Prime Minister Edward Heath won Britain’s admission to the European Community. Margaret Thatcher became Britain’s first woman prime minister as the Conservatives won 339 seats on May 3, 1979.
 
An Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands on April 2, 1982, involved Britain in a war 8,000 miles from the home islands. Argentina had long claimed the Falklands, known as the Malvinas in Spanish, which had been occupied by the British since 1832. Britain won a decisive victory within six weeks when more than 11,000 Argentine troops on the Falklands surrendered on June 14, 1982.
 
Although there were continuing economic problems and foreign policy disputes, an upswing in the economy in 1986–1987 led Thatcher to call elections in June, and she won a near-unprecedented third consecutive term. The unpopularity of Thatcher’s poll tax, together with an uncompromising position toward further European integration, eroded support within her own party. When John Major won the Conservative Party leadership, Thatcher resigned, paving the way for Major to assume power.
 
Eighteen years of Conservative rule ended in May 1997 when Tony Blair and the Labour Party triumphed in the British elections. Blair had been compared to then-US president Bill Clinton for his youthful, telegenic personality and centrist views. He produced constitutional reform that partially decentralized the UK, leading to the formation of separate parliaments in Wales and Scotland by 1999. Britain turned over its colony of Hong Kong to China in July 1997.
 
Blair’s controversial meeting in October 1997 with Sinn Fein’s president, Gerry Adams, was the first meeting in 76 years between a British prime minister and a Sinn Fein leader. It infuriated numerous factions but was a symbolic gesture in support of the nascent peace talks in Northern Ireland. In 1998, the Good Friday Agreement, strongly supported by Tony Blair, led to the first promise of peace between Catholics and Protestants since the beginning of the so-called Troubles.
 
Along with the US, Britain launched air strikes against Iraq in December 1998 after Saddam Hussein expelled UN arms inspectors. In the spring of 1999, Britain spearheaded the NATO operation in Kosovo, which resulted in Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic’s withdrawal from the territory.
 
In February 2001, foot-and-mouth disease broke out among British livestock, prompting other nations to ban British meat imports and forcing the slaughter of thousands of cattle, pigs, and sheep in an effort to stem the highly contagious disease.
 
In June 2001, Blair won a second landslide victory, with the Labour Party capturing 413 seats in parliament.
 
Britain became the staunchest ally of the US after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. British troops joined the US in the bombing campaign against Afghanistan in October 2001, after the Taliban-led government refused to turn over the prime suspect behind the terrorist attacks, Osama bin Laden.
 
Blair again proved himself to be the strongest international supporter of the US in September 2002, becoming President George W. Bush’s major ally in calling for a war against Iraq. Blair maintained that military action was justified because Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction that were a direct threat. He supported the Bush administration’s hawkish policies despite significant opposition in his own party and the British public. In March 2003, a London Times newspaper poll indicated that only 19% of respondents approved of military action without a UN mandate. As the inevitability of the US strike on Iraq grew nearer, Blair announced that he would join the US in fighting Iraq with or without a second UN resolution. Three of his ministers resigned as a result. Britain entered the war on March 20, supplying 45,000 troops.
 
In the aftermath of the war, Blair came under fire from government officials for allegedly exaggerating Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction. In July 2003, Blair announced that “history would forgive” the UK and US “if we are wrong” and that the end to the “inhuman carnage and suffering” caused by Saddam Hussein was justification enough for the war. The arguments about the war grew so vociferous between the Blair government and the BBC that a prominent weapons scientist, David Kelly, who was caught in the middle, committed suicide. In Jan. 2004, the Hutton Report asserted that the Blair administration had not “sexed-up” the intelligence dossier, denouncing an accusation put forth by BBC reporter Andrew Gilligan. The report strongly criticized the BBC for its “defective” editorial policies, and as a consequence, the BBC’s top management resigned. In July 2004, the Butler Report on pre–Iraq war British intelligence was released. It echoed the findings of the US Senate Intelligence Committee that the intelligence had vastly exaggerated Saddam Hussein’s threat. The famous claim that Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons were “deployable within 45 minutes of an order to use them” was especially singled out as highly misleading. But like the US report, it cleared the government of any role in manipulating the intelligence.
 
On May 5, 2005, Blair won a historic third term as the country’s prime minister. Despite this victory, the Labour Party was severely hurt in the elections, winning just 36% of the national vote, the lowest percentage by a ruling party in British history. The Conservative Party won 33%, and the Liberal Democrats 22%. Blair acknowledged that the reason for the poor showing was Britain’s involvement in the war in Iraq.
 
On July 7, 2005, London suffered its worst attack since World War II. Four bombs exploded in three subway stations and on one double-decker bus during the morning rush hour, killing 52 and wounding more than 700. Four Muslim men, three of them British-born, were identified as the suicide bombers. On July 21, terrorists attempted another attack on the transit system, but the bombs failed to explode. A leaked document by a top British government official warned Prime Minister Blair more than a year before the bombings that Britain’s engagement in Iraq was fueling Islamic extremism, but Blair repeatedly denied such a link, contending that the bombings were the result of an “evil ideology” that had taken root before the Iraq war. Blair proposed legislation that would toughen the country’s antiterrorism measures, and he suffered his first major political defeat as prime minister in November, when his proposal that terrorist suspects could be held without charge for up to 90 days was rejected.
 
In April 2006, the Blair government weathered a major scandal when it was revealed that since 1999 it had released 1,023 foreign convicts—among them murderers and rapists—into British society instead of deporting them to their countries of origin.
 
In August 2006, London police foiled a major terrorist plot to destroy several airplanes traveling from Britain to the US. Intelligence sources asserted that the plan was close to execution, and had it succeeded, it would have been the deadliest terrorist attack since Sept. 11. A number of young men, most of whom were Britons of Pakistani descent, were arrested in connection with the plot.
 
Blair announced in February 2007 that as many as 1,600 of the 7,100 troops stationed in southern Iraq would leave in the next few months. On June 27, he stepped down as prime minister. Gordon Brown succeeded him. Typically dour, Brown lacked Blair’s charisma and quick wit. The new prime minister faced the task of shoring up the Labour Party and regaining the public’s trust.
 
Just two days into Brown’s term, police defused two bombs found in cars parked in the West End section of London. The attackers, who officials said were linked to al-Qaeda, tried and failed to detonate the bombs using cell phones. Police detained several foreign-born suspects, several of whom were doctors. The next day, on June 30, an SUV carrying bombs burst into flames after it slammed into an entrance to Glasgow Airport.
 
In July 2007, four Islamist men, all originally from the Horn of Africa, were sentenced to life in prison by a British judge for attempting to bomb the London transit system on July 21, 2005.
 
On June 11, 2008, despite much opposition, a new counterterrorism bill passed by a nine-vote margin in the House of Commons. The bill allows the detention of terrorism suspects for up to 42 days without charges, extending the current 28-day detention limit. But on October 13, 2008, in a setback for Brown, the House of Lords rejected the bill in a 309 to 118 vote.
 
In December 2008, amidst global economic and financial turmoil, the Bank of England cut interest rates by one percentage point, from 3% to 2%—the lowest level since 1951.
 
Gordon Brown and Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki made a joint announcement in December 2008, stating that all British troops would be withdrawn from Iraq by the end of July 2009.
 
 

 

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History of U.S. Relations with United Kingdom

The English were the first Europeans to establish permanent settlements in America, beginning with Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620. The first Jamestown settlement, comprised of single men hunting for gold and easily exportable goods, flirted with failure until the 1630s when the colony reoriented itself to a stable agricultural economy with lucrative tobacco exports. Many of these early immigrants, most notably the Puritans who settled in Massachusetts Bay and the Quakers in Pennsylvania, came seeking religious freedom. Some even sought refuge from religious persecution within America, such as Roger Williams who founded the state of Rhode Island as a haven for freedom of religion. These religious immigrants characterized the demographic in New England; sometimes whole congregations would pack up and move together. In the South, however, the majority of arrivals came seeking economic opportunity, often signing contracts exchanging their passage over the Atlantic for a few years of labor before acquiring their own tracts of land to till. Besides farmers, these servants worked as craftsmen, tradesmen, and laborers. 

 
By the last decade of the 17th century, the English comprised 90% of European settlers in America. In the 18th century, the percentage of female immigrants increased slightly, from 15% to 25%. Along with these women came 30,000 male and female prisoners between 1717 and 1776, banished to America to serve their terms as agricultural laborers or servants. According to the 1790 census, only 60% of the 4.5 million Europeans living in the newly formed US were English. However, by dominating the highest echelons of the political and social hierarchy, they had ensured the legacy of England’s culture and institutions in America. 
 
Immigration was minimal in the period between the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. This was partly because of Britain’s new commitments in India and Latin America, and because of the emigration restrictions that England placed on its own craftsmen. In addition, there were restrictions placed on suspected British sympathizers in America, which also deterred immigration. Although 19th century immigration was defined by the influx of continental Europeans, the English continued to cross the Atlantic in significant numbers. After picking up in the 1820s, annual English immigration reached 60,000 in the 1860s before peaking at 80,000 in 1882 and 1888. The American depression in 1893 curbed the flow of economic migrants and English immigration never again reached its former heights. In addition, Australia and Canada offered more attractive immigration policies and economic opportunities. 
 
Immigration picked up again in the first three decades of the 20th century, with the English constituting 6% of European immigrants. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, reverse immigrants outnumbered arrivals, as people fled back to England in search of work. This tide was reversed again with the conclusion of World War II, when a flood of war brides came to America with their veteran husbands (there were four women for every man arriving during this period). In the second half of the 20th century, the English constituted 12%-18% of European immigrants. In opposition to previous trends, many of these immigrants came from the middle and upper classes, either lured by high-paying jobs at American multinational corporations, or because of the tax structure which was less demanding for the very wealthy.
 
Between 1763 and 1775, about 40,000 Scottish immigrants arrived in America. A number of Quaker and Presbyterian Scots formed colonies in East Jersey and South Carolina, fleeing the religious persecution imposed by the Episcopalian Church of Scotland. These Scots tended to immigrate in groups, a legacy of their clan-based society. Scots became known for their taste for adventure: they were highly represented in western expansion, and played a major role in the military. Highland Scots were instrumental in protecting southeastern British colonies from the Spanish in Florida. These same Highland Scots (distinguished from the Lowland Scots by their adherence to Catholicism) were uniquely vocal in their opposition to slavery in the south, as opposed to other British colonists who were eager to utilize forced labor to amass their own fortunes. The ebb and flow of Scottish immigration reflected economic conditions at home: a particularly harsh recession in the 1920s pushed a significant wave of Scots to America's shores. Today the states containing the greatest number of people claiming Scottish ancestry are California, Florida, Texas, New York, and Michigan.
 
In the 17th century some 200,000 Lowland Protestant Scots were encouraged to move to Northern Ireland by the British government in an attempt to establish a more prominent, more governable Protestant population in Ireland. Between 1763 and 1775, about 55,000 Scotch-Irish arrived in America. Unlike their Scottish brethren, they usually immigrated individually or as families, and were motivated to move for economic rather than religious reasons. The largest wave arrived following the catastrophic Irish Potato Famine of 1845-1852, which killed two million people. Today the largest populations of Scotch-Irish reside in California, Texas, North Carolina, Florida, and Pennsylvania.
 
The Welsh came early to America, perhaps as early as 1170 according to popular Welsh legends. Anecdotal stories tell of Prince Madoc ap Owain Gwynedd, who led an expedition of discovery centuries before Columbus, and left a legacy of shared blood and language with the Native Americans. Motivated by these tales, the Welsh were among the first to come to America, and also were some of the most adventurous explorers within America. John Evans, a Welsh explorer, journeyed through the wilderness of the Missouri river in 1792 (seven years before the Louis and Clarke Expedition) in an attempt to find his long-lost cousins.
 
Prior to the passage in Britain of the Religious Toleration Act of 1689, many Welsh came to America seeking religious freedom from the oppressive policies of the dominant Anglican Church. Immigration picked up again in the late 18th century, when poor harvests in Wales and news of available land in the fertile Ohio River valley catalyzed another wave of immigration. The 19th century saw a demographic change in immigrants, as laborers and innovative industrialists from Wales’ successful iron and tinplate industries came to America. From the Civil War era to the end of World War I, Scranton, Pennsylvania was home to the largest Welsh population outside of the United Kingdom. 
 
After America’s depression in 1893, Welsh emigrants began seeking other destinations such as Australia, which offered greater opportunities. Due to their early exploratory tendencies, as well as their desire for isolation to maintain their national identity, Welsh immigrants spread far and wide across the US. They are more evenly distributed across the Northeast, Midwest, South and West than any other European-American group. 
 
US-UK Political History
The British established the first colonies in the New World during the 1700s. Prefaced by the French and Indian War, tensions escalated between the colonies and the British Crown from 1765 to 1775 over issues of taxation and control, eventually leading to the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776, and British military efforts to defeat the Americans ultimately failed. American independence was recognized by Britain in 1783.
 
In 1791, Britain sent its first official envoy, George Hammond, to the US. When Great Britain and France went to war again in 1793, relations between the US and UK verged on war. However, the two countries signed the Jay Treaty in 1794 which established a decade of peace and prosperous trade relations. This lasted until 1805. Relations deteriorated as the United States imposed trade embargoes, such as the Embargo Act of 1807, and the Royal Navy boarded American ships to impress British-born sailors.
 
During the early stages of the War of 1812, American forces attacked the British colony of Canada, including the burning of York. The assault was ultimately a failure, and in 1814 the British raided Washington and burned down the White House. After the United States gained naval control of the Great Lakes, which prevented British attack from Canada, negotiations led to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war.
 
Antagonism between the two nations gradually subsided during the remainder of the 19th century. By the early 20th century, the US became a staunch ally of England, siding with it during World War I and World War II. Participation in the latter conflict was especially critical for Britain’s survival, which found itself cutoff from the rest of Europe and in desperate need of supplies. The US sent waves of convoys across the Atlantic Ocean, battling German submarines (U-boats) and keeping Britain fortified while American and British leaders forged a coordinated response that eventually defeated Nazi Germany.
 
At the end of World War II, the US and Britain became two of the founding members of the United Nations, as well as two of the five permanent members of the Security Council. Both were suspicious of the motives of their former ally, the Soviet Union, under Joseph Stalin. Rising tensions between the capitalist and communist powers led to the Cold War, and an era of close cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom. From this cooperation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed as a mutual-defense alliance.
 
As the British Empire dissolved throughout the world, the US became one of two world superpowers along with the Soviet Union. The United Kingdom became the most important partner with the United States on the Western side of the Cold War. Forces from both countries were involved in the Korean War (1950-1952), fighting under United Nations command.
 
But not all was rosy between the two countries. The US demanded that the United Kingdom (and France) end their invasion of Egypt in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. During the United States’ protracted war in Vietnam, the British government, under Harold Wilson, refused to send troops to fight alongside American soldiers. Protests against the introduction of US medium-range nuclear missiles on British soil became a feature of British politics in the 1980s. However Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher stood in solidarity with the Reagan administration’s decision to base the controversial weapons. Thatcher was strongly supportive of President Reagan’s stance towards the Soviet Union. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, both the Americans and the British provided arms to the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen rebels.
 
In the 1982 Falklands War, Washington initially tried to mediate between the United Kingdom and Argentina, but ultimately supported British military efforts, both politically and militarily.
 
In the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the United States and the United Kingdom provided the largest forces for the coalition army that liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation. 
 
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Current U.S. Relations with United Kingdom

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, in which a number of UK citizens were also killed, there was an enormous outpouring of sympathy from the United Kingdom for the United States. Accordingly, Prime Minister Tony Blair became President George W. Bush’s strongest international supporter. British forces participated in the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the United Kingdom, as well as Commonwealth nations such as Canada and Australia, supported the United States in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. France, Germany, China and Russia, however, did not show such support. After the United States, the United Kingdom contributed the most troops to the coalition that entered Iraq. But by 2007, British support for the Iraq war had radically declined.

 
That year, Foreign Secretary David Miliband insisted that the US would continue to be the UK’s most important partner. His assertion came after comments from two other ministers that seemed to hint at a cooling of relations with the US. New Foreign Office Minister Lord Malloch Brown claimed the UK and the US would no longer be “joined at the hip” on foreign policy. Meanwhile, in a speech against unilateralism, International Development Secretary Douglas Alexander called for an “internationalist approach” to global problems, which was viewed as a repudiation of President Bush’s cowboy diplomacy.
 
In the 2000 US census, 24,514,199 people identified themselves as being of English ancestry;
4,319,232 people identified themselves as being of Scottish-Irish ancestry; 4,890,581 people identified themselves as being of Scottish ancestry; and 1,753,794 people identified themselves as being of Welsh ancestry.
 
The number of Americans visiting the United Kingdom has fluctuated between a low of 3,346,000 (2003) and high of 3,896,380 (2006) since 2002.
 
The number of citizens from the United Kingdom visiting the US grew consistently between 2002 (3,816,736 tourists) and 2005 (4,344,957 tourists) before decreasing slightly in 2006 (4,176,211 tourists).
 
U.S.-UK Relations at the Start of the 21st Century (Edited by Jeffrey D. McCausland and Douglas T. Stuart, National Defense University)
Coming to America (by Jessica Au, Newsweek)
US-UK Relations (US Politics Today)
Top of the Agenda: U.K.-U.S. Economic Meetings (Council on Foreign Relations)
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Where Does the Money Flow

The United Kingdom is the fifth-largest market for US exports, after Canada, Mexico, Japan, and China; and the sixth-largest supplier of US imports after Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany. US exports of goods and services to the United Kingdom in 2008 totaled $53.7 billion, while US imports from the UK totaled $58.6 billion. The United States has had a trade deficit with the United Kingdom since 1998.

 
The single largest import by the US is pharmaceuticals, which steadily increased between 2004-2008 from $6.4 billion to $11.05 billion.
 
Other top imports from the UK include petroleum products, rising from $1.9 billion to $4.6 billion; passenger cars, which actually has declined from $4.8 billion to $3.9 billion; crude oil, another import in decline ($3.7 billion to $2.5 billion); and engines for civilian aircraft, rising from $1.8 billion to $2.09 billion.
 
In recent years, the UK has been buying up non-monetary gold from the US, making it the single largest American export item. From 2004-2008, purchases of gold have skyrocketed from $602 million to $5.2 billion.
 
Other leading exports include pharmaceutical preparations, rising from $2.3 billion to $4.04 billion; civilian aircraft purchases (including engines and parts), increasing from $4 billion to $6 billion; telecommunications equipment, which has averaged $1.4 billion annually; and computer accessories, which has declined from $2.2 billion to $1.1 billion.
 
The US and the UK share the world’s largest foreign direct investment partnership. US investment in the United Kingdom reached $324 billion in 2005, while UK direct investment in the US totaled $282 billion. This investment sustained more than 1 million American jobs.
 
The US sold $8.28 billion of defense articles and services to the United Kingdom in 2007.
 
The US does not give aid to Great Britain
 
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Controversies

British Officials Outraged over American Renditions on UK Soil

In 2008, Members of Parliament and human rights groups demanded an independent inquiry into the use of UK territory by CIA “torture flights,” as fresh questions emerged over the government’s handling of the issue. David Miliband, the British foreign secretary, apologized to MPs, admitting that contrary to “earlier explicit assurances” two flights had landed at Diego Garcia, the British Indian Ocean territory where the US has a large airbase. He said the flights had refueled there, and each had had a single detainee on board who did not leave the aircraft. British and US officials refused to give details about the two detainees other than that one was in Guantánamo Bay and the other had been released.
 
British officials said they were “working behind the scenes” in an attempt to get more information from the Americans. Lord Malloch Brown, the Foreign Office minister, spoke to Manfred Novak, the UN’s special investigator on torture, about the alleged use of Diego Garcia as a detention centre to hold US suspects. Novak said he had credible evidence, from sources he could not reveal, that detainees were held on the island between 2002 and 2003. British officials said they had no evidence of this. Some representatives of human rights groups suggested records of the CIA flights may have been destroyed.
Fresh questions on torture flights spark demands for inquiry (by Richard Norton-Taylor and Duncan Campbell, The Guardian)
 
UK, US Spar over Stealth Fighter Technology
A top British official threatened in 2006 to pull out of the multinational, $256 billion Joint Strike Fighter project, owing to complaints about the United States’ unwillingness to share stealth technology used in the aircraft. British defense officials demanded access to specific software codes and weapons systems and threatened to “go elsewhere” to upgrade their warplanes if the US did not comply. “We have a backup plan if we do not get a deal that’s sufficiently workable,” a Ministry of Defense spokesman said. The British press has speculated that the Rafale, the latest fighter by French-based Dassault Aviation, is one alternative.
 
From the point of view of the Joint Program Office in Washington, where the US military and representatives of eight other partner nations manage the Joint Strike Fighter project, the US government has already been generous with its technology. “The British have been provided more information than ever before due to their ‘Level 1’ partner status in JSF development, but not everything,” said spokeswoman Cheryl Irwin.
 
The British said they remained committed to the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, for which they’ve already spent $2 billion and plan to buy 150 of the jets when they are ready some time next decade. But for the first time, Britain was asserting its right to use and maintain joint weapons systems on its own terms. “This is not just hot air. The UK are actually backing themselves into a very tight corner and challenging the US to call their bluff,” said a security expert. A recent agreement between Britain and France to build a new fleet of aircraft carriers showed “it’s not outside the realm of possibility that the UK has a serious Plan B.”
 
American Ambassador Flubs Facts, Called ‘Little Crook’
The US embassy in London was forced to issue a correction in 2005 to an interview given by then-Ambassador Robert Tuttle, in which he claimed the United States would not fly suspected terrorists to Syria, which has one of the worst torture records in the Middle East. The embassy was forced to confirm media reports that a suspect had in fact been taken from the US to Syria. The misstep followed his earlier gaffe when he vigorously denied British media reports that American forces used white phosphorus as a weapon in Iraq, only to be undercut by an admission of its use from the Pentagon the next day.
 
Tuttle also garnered media attention for refusing to pay the London congestion charge, claiming it is a form of taxation that diplomats and their staff are exempt from paying. London officials consider the charge to be a fee for service rather than a tax, and pointed out that other embassies in London paid it. In March 2006, London Mayor Ken Livingstone said that Tuttle was trying to “skive out of [paying] like some chiseling little crook.” A survey published in 2007 showed that the United States owed £1.5 million in outstanding congestion charge payments. Livingstone again chided Tuttle, and called him a “venal little crook” for his refusal to pay.
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Human Rights

According to the State Department, in July 2008, the British Ministry of Defense agreed to pay 2.8 million pounds (approximately $4 million) to the family of Iraqi civilian Baha Mousa, who died in 2003 after suffering 93 injuries during a 36-hour detention by British troops in Iraq. In 2007 a court martial sentenced a soldier to one year in prison and dismissed him from the army for the inhumane treatment of Mousa. Six other soldiers were acquitted; no one was convicted in the death

 
There continued to be allegations that members of the military services were at least complicit, if not participants, in the torture of detainees overseas, that individual police officers occasionally abused detainees, and that guards under contract to immigration authorities abused deportees while returning them to their home countries. Police are subject to oversight by the Independent Police Complaints Commission, which investigates charges of abuse and has the power to punish police officers if abuse is found.
 
Member of Parliament John McDonnell accused the intelligence services of colluding in the torture of one of his constituents by Pakistani authorities. During the year, several citizens, all UK Pakistani dual nationals, made similar charges.
 
Police may detain an ordinary criminal suspect for 96 hours without charging him or her. However, detention for more than 24 hours must be authorized by a senior police official, and detention of more than 60 hours requires the approval of a magistrate. No one except terrorism suspects may be detained without charge longer than 96 hours.
 
Authorities may hold terrorism suspects for up to 28 days before formally charging them; they are entitled to counsel during this period. A government bill to extend the period of detention without charges from 28 to 42 days in terrorist cases was a significant source of controversy during 2008; the bill was withdrawn after leaders in the House of Lords indicated it would be defeated there. Existing law permits the extended detention of foreigners who are suspected of being terrorists but who cannot be deported immediately because of the risk they would be tortured or executed in their countries of destination. Such individuals may appeal their designation as terror suspects.
 
On April 9, 2008, the Court of Appeal ruled that radical preacher Abu Qatada, whose “inspirational” tapes were found in the German apartments used by Mohammad Atta and other 9/11 terrorists, could not be deported to Jordan because his human rights might be violated there.
 
In 2008, legislation requiring telephone companies to retain information about landline and cellular telephone calls took full effect. The legislation requires that the retained information may be made available, without a warrant, to over 700 governmental organizations, including the police, the National Health Service, and other social services. The Ministry of Justice, responsible for implementing the legislation, denied that the data was at risk of being compromised.
 
The use of electronic surveillance requires the approval of the home secretary, who authorizes an “interception warrant,” which must name or describe either one person, or a single set of premises, where the interception is to take place. However, in limited circumstances, the home secretary may issue a “certified” interception warrant, eliminating the requirement to specify a person or premises. Certified warrants are intended only for communications with overseas parties. They include communications channeled through a foreign Internet service provider (ISP). An independent “interception of communications commissioner” oversaw interception warrants, and the Investigatory Powers Tribunal investigated public complaints of surveillance abuses.
 
On July 3, 2008, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled that the British government’s telephone tapping practices violated the right to privacy. Describing the government’s powers to tap private telephone conversations and Internet connections as “virtually unfettered,” the court ruled that the government’s right to intrude on private conversations could not be indiscriminant and that limits needed t obe implemented. The case that precipitated the ruling was brought to the public’s attention by British and Irish human rights groups, after the Irish authorities asked the government whether it was monitoring Irish telephone conversations.
 
There were no official statistics on the number of trafficking victims. However, in a July 3, 2008 report, police estimated (based on arrests, including from raids on bordellos and statements from those intercepted at the borders) that between 6,000 and 18,000 women and children were engaged in prostitution involuntarily, the majority trafficked from abroad. Regions of origin included Central and Eastern Europe, primarily the Balkans and the former Soviet Union, and Asia, including China. Most victims were women trafficked for sexual exploitation. Women, men, and children were also trafficked for labor exploitation in domestic service, agricultural and rural labor, construction, and catering.
 
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors

 

The post of US Ambassador to the Court of St. James (United Kingdom) was once a stepping stone for future US presidents. From the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, no less than five future presidents served as America’s top diplomat to England: John Adams, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren, and James Buchanan.
 
Other prominent figures who have held the ambassadorship include John W. Davis, the Democratic nominee for president in 1924 (loser to Calvin Coolidge), millionaire Andrew W. Mellon, Joseph P. Kennedy, patriarch of the Kennedy family and son to future President John F. Kennedy, billionaire Walter Annenberg, and Elliot Richardson, the US Attorney General who was fired as part of the “Saturday Night Massacre” by President Richard Nixon during the Watergate investigation.

 
John Adams
Appointment: Feb 24, 1785
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 1, 1785
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience, Feb 20, 1788
Note: Commissioned to the court of Great Britain; also accredited to the Netherlands.
 
Thomas Pinckney
Appointment: Jan 12, 1792
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 9, 1792
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jul 27, 1796
Note: Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
Rufus King
Appointment: May 20, 1796
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 27, 1796
Termination of Mission: Presented recall on or shortly before May 16, 1803
Note: Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
James Monroe
Appointment: Apr 18, 1803
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 17, 1803
Termination of Mission: Presented recall Oct 7, 1807
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Nov 18, 1803. Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
William Pinkney
Appointment: Feb 26, 1808
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 27, 1808
Termination of Mission: Left England on or soon after May 7, 1811
Note: Originally commissioned as Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of His Britannic Majesty and given a letter of credence as such, May 12, 1806—on the same day that he and Monroe were accredited jointly as Commissioners Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary on a special mission. When Monroe was preparing to leave London, he informed the Foreign Secretary that Pinkney would succeed him in the ordinary duties of the Legation; the British authorities declined to accept Pinkney's 1806 letter of credence, but dealt with him informally until he was recommissioned and reaccredited.
 
Jonathan Russell
Appointment: [Jul 27, 1811 ]
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 15, 1811
Termination of Mission: The U.S. declared war on Great Britain, Jun 18, 1812; Russell received unofficial notice of this, Jul 29, 1812, and suspended his official functions
Note: Commission (issued during a recess of the Senate) not of record, but enclosed with an instruction of Jul 27, 1811.
 
John Quincy Adams
Appointment: Feb 28, 1815
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 8, 1815
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 14, 1817
Note: Commissioned to the court of the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Richard Rush
Appointment: 1817
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 12, 1818
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Apr 27, 1825
Note: Month and day not included on record copy of commission, which was issued during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 16, 1817. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Rufus King
Appointment: May 5, 1825
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 11, 1825
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, 16-Jun 23, 1826
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 20, 1825. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Albert Gallatin
Appointment: May 10, 1826
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 1, 1826
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 4, 1827
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
James Barbour
Appointment: May 23, 1828
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 24, 1828
Termination of Mission: Left post on or shortly before Oct 1, 1829
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Louis McLane
Appointment: Apr 18, 1829
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 12, 1829
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience on or shortly before Jun 13, 1831
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 10, 1830. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Martin Van Buren
Appointment: Aug 1, 1831
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 21, 1831
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience, Mar 19, 1832
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Nomination later rejected by the Senate.
 
Aaron Vail
Appointment: Jul 13, 1832
Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]
Termination of Mission: Superseded, Jul 13, 1836
Note: No report has been found concerning Vail's presentation of credentials as Chargé d'Affaires en titre; he had been received as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim on Apr 4, 1832. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Andrew Stevenson
Appointment: Mar 16, 1836
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 13, 1836
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Oct 21, 1841
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Nomination of May 20, 1834 rejected by the Senate; nomination of Feb 1, 1836 confirmed.
 
Edward Everett
Appointment: Sep 13, 1841
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 16, 1841
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 8, 1845
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Louis McLane
Appointment: Jun 16, 1845
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 8, 1845
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Aug 18, 1849
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 23, 1845. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
George Bancroft
Appointment: Sep 9, 1846
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 12, 1846
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Aug 31, 1849
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 23, 1846. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Abbott Lawrence
Appointment: Aug 20, 1849
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 20, 1849
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Oct 12, 1852
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jun 24, 1850. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Joseph R. Ingersoll
Appointment: Aug 21, 1852
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 16, 1852
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 23, 1853
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
James Buchanan
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 11, 1853
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 23, 1853
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Mar 15, 1856
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
George M. Dallas
Appointment: Feb 4, 1856
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 4, 1856
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 16, 1861
Note: Commissioned to the court of Her Britannic Majesty.
 
Charles Francis Adams
Appointment: Mar 20, 1861
Presentation of Credentials: May 16, 1861
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 13, 1868
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
George B. McClellan
Note: Not commissioned; nomination rejected by the Senate.
 
Reverdy Johnson
Appointment: Jun 12, 1868
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 14, 1868
Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge, May 13, 1869
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
J. Lothrop Motley
Appointment: Apr 13, 1869
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 18, 1869
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 6, 1870
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen
Appointment: Jul 15, 1870
Note: Commissioned to London; declined appointment.
 
Oliver T. Morton
Appointment: Sep 23, 1870
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Commissioned to London; declined appointment.
 
Robert C. Schenck
Appointment: Dec 22, 1870
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 23, 1871
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 3, 1876
 
Richard H. Dana, Jr.
Note: Not commissioned; nomination rejected by the Senate.
 
Edwards Pierrepont
Appointment: May 22, 1876
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 11, 1876
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 22, 1877
 
John Welsh
Appointment: Nov 9, 1877
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 22, 1877
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 14, 1879
 
James Russell Lowell
Appointment: Jan 26, 1880
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 11, 1880
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 19, 1885
 
Edward J. Phelps
Appointment: Mar 23, 1885
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 19, 1885
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 31, 1889
 
Robert T. Lincoln
Appointment: Mar 30, 1889
Presentation of Credentials: May 25, 1889
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 4, 1893
 
Thomas F. Bayard
Appointment: Mar 30, 1893
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 22, 1893
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 17, 1897
 
John Hay
Appointment: Mar 19, 1893
Presentation of Credentials: May 3, 1897
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 12, 1898
 
Joseph Choate
Appointment: Jan 19, 1899
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 6, 1899
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 23, 1905
 
Whitelaw Reid
Appointment: Mar 8, 1905
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 5, 1905
Termination of Mission: Died at post Dec 15, 1912
 
Walter Hines Page
Appointment: Apr 21, 1913
Presentation of Credentials: May 30, 1913
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 3, 1918
 
John W. Davis
Appointment: Nov 21, 1918
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 18, 1918
Termination of Mission: Left England, Mar 9, 1921
 
George Harvey
Appointment: Apr 16, 1921
Presentation of Credentials: May 12, 1921
Termination of Mission: Left England, Nov 3, 1923
 
Frank B. Kellogg
Appointment: Dec 11, 1923
Presentation of Credentials: Jan 14, 1924
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Feb 10, 1925
 
Alanson B. Houghton
Appointment: Feb 24, 1925
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 27, 1925
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 28, 1929
 
Charles G. Dawes
Appointment: Apr 16, 1929
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 15, 1929
Termination of Mission: Left post Dec 30, 1931
 
Andrew W. Mellon
Appointment: Feb 5, 1932
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 9, 1932
Termination of Mission: Left England, Mar 17, 1933
 
Robert Worth Bingham
Appointment: Mar 23, 1933
Presentation of Credentials: May 23, 1933
Termination of Mission: Left England, Nov 19, 1937
 
Joseph P. Kennedy
Appointment: Jan 17, 1938
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 8, 1938
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 22, 1940
 
John G. Winant
Appointment: Feb 11, 1941
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 1, 1941
Termination of Mission: Appointment terminated, Apr 10, 1946
 
W. Averell Harriman
Appointment: Apr 2, 1946
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 30, 1946
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 1, 1946
 
O. Max Gardner
Appointment: [Dec 6, 1946]
Note: Took oath of office, but died in the United States before proceeding to post. A commission signed by the President during a recess of the Senate, which had not yet been dated and attested, was returned to the President by the Acting Secretary on Dec 6, 1946, Gardner having declined a recess appointment. Recommissioned Jan 13, 1947.
 
Lewis W. Douglas
Appointment: Mar 6, 1947
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 25, 1947
Termination of Mission: Left post Nov 16, 1950
 
Walter S. Gifford
Appointment: Sep 29, 1950
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Did not serve under this appointment.
Appointment: Dec 12, 1950
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 21, 1950
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 23, 1953
 
Winthrop W. Aldrich
Appointment: Feb 2, 1953
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 20, 1953
Termination of Mission: Left England, Feb 1, 1957
 
John Hay Whitney
Appointment: Feb 11, 1957
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 28, 1957
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 14, 1961
 
David K.E. Bruce
Appointment: Feb 22, 1961
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 17, 1961
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 20, 1969
 
Walter H. Annenberg
Appointment: Mar 14, 1969
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 29, 1969
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 30, 1974
 
Elliot L. Richardson
Appointment: Feb 20, 1975
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 21, 1975
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 16, 1976
 
Anne Legendre Armstrong
Appointment: Jan 29, 1976
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 17, 1976
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 3, 1977
 
Kingman Brewster, Jr.
Appointment: Apr 29, 1977
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 3, 1977
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 23, 1981
 
John J. Louis, Jr.
Appointment: May 7, 1981
Presentation of Credentials: May 27, 1981
Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge, Nov 7, 1983
 
Charles H. Price, II
Appointment: Nov 11, 1983
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 20, 1983
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 28, 1989
 
Henry E. Catto, Jr.
Appointment: Apr 14, 1989
Presentation of Credentials: May 17, 1989
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 13, 1991
 
Raymond George Hardenbergh Seitz
Appointment: Apr 25, 1991
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 25, 1991
Termination of Mission: Left post May 10, 1994
 
William J. Crowe, Jr.
Appointment: May 13, 1994
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 2, 1994
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 20, 1997
 
Philip Lader
Appointment: Aug 1, 1997
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 22, 1997
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 28, 2001
 
William S. Farish
Appointment: Jul 12, 2001
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 1, 2001
Termination of Mission: Jun 11, 2004
 
Robert H. Tuttle
Appointment: Jul 9, 2005
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 19, 2005
Termination of Mission: Feb 6, 2009
 
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United Kingdom's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Sheinwald, Nigel

Nigel Sheinwald took up his position as British Ambassador to the United States in October 2007. Born in 1953, Sheinwald was educated at Harrow County Grammar School and Balliol College, Oxford.  

 
Sheinwald joined the British Diplomatic Service in 1976. He worked in London on the Japan Desk (1976-1977), in Moscow (1978-1979), back in London on Zimbabwe Desk (1979-1981), including the Lancaster House Conference, and as head of the Foreign Office’s Anglo-Soviet Section in 1981-1983.
 
His first posting to Washington was from 1983-1987 as first secretary (political) in the British Embassy. He was deputy head of the British Foreign Office’s Policy Planning Staff from 1987-1989, responsible for transatlantic relations and other issues. 
 
He began his career in European Union work as deputy head of the FCO’s European Union Department from 1989-1992, followed by a posting in the UK Representation in 1993-1995 as head of its Political and Institutional Section. From 1995-1998, he was the FCO press secretary and head of news department. 
 
Sheinwald was Europe Director in the FCO (1998-2000), UK Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the European Union in Brussels from 2000-2003, and Foreign Policy and Defense Adviser to the prime minister from 2003-2007.

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United Kingdom's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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Comments

Barry A Schlech 8 years ago
Sirs, I know international diplomacy is extremely difficult and it is almost impossible to satisfy all peoples with your actions.....BUT, this Lockerbie thing with the release of that horrible terrorist, Abdel Baset al-Megrahi, is a big blunder on Scotland's and UK's part. I know Europeans are against capital punishment and that's your right, but we in Texas do not take our criminals that lightly, as you know. The sight of the "compassionate release" of an animal that killed over ...

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U.S. Ambassador to United Kingdom

Barzun, Matthew
ambassador-image

What Matthew W. Barzun lacks in terms of diplomatic experience, or knowledge about Sweden, he makes up with having supported President Barack Obama’s election—to the tune of hundreds of thousands of dollars. The former CNET executive was one of Obama’s key bundlers, helping to funnel at least $500,000 towards the campaign. He was sworn in as U.S. ambassador to Sweden August 12, 2009.

 
Born on October 23, 1970, in New York City, Barzun grew up in Lincoln, Massachusetts, and attended the St. Paul’s School private academy in New Hampshire. He went to college at Harvard, during which he spent a summer internship working in the office of U.S. Senator John Kerry (D-Massachusetts). He received his bachelor’s degree in history and literature, magna cum laude, in 1993.
 
After graduating from Harvard, Barzun joined the fledgling CNET as the company’s fourth employee. He spent the next decade rising up through the growing Internet business. In 1995 he was promoted to Vice President of Software Services, where he led the acquisition of the Virtual Software Library, a library of downloadable software. He was in charge of launching CNET’s Download.com service, and he became senior vice president in 1998.
 
The following year he married his wife, Brooke Brown, and in 2000, he was promoted again, to chief strategy officer. He remained at CNET until 2004, when he left to start his own consulting company, Brickpath LLC, which advises Internet media companies.
 
That same year Barzun helped raise money for John Kerry’s 2004 presidential bid.
 
During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barzun joined Obama’s National Finance Committee. He raised more than half a million dollars for Obama, according to OpenSecrets.org, and he donated $4,600 of his own money. He also contributed $25,000 to Obama’s inauguration fund. Barzun and his family contributed more than $290,000 to political campaigns and groups during the 2008 election cycle.
 
Barzun has served on the boards of many non-profits with a focus on education (the Louisville Free Public Library Foundation, Louisville Public Media, and Teach Kentucky); public policy (the Kentucky Long Term Policy Research Center, and The Greater Louisville Project) and interfaith relations (Center for Interfaith Relations).
 
Barzun and his wife have three children.
 
Official Biography (State Department)

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Overview

No other nation on earth holds a closer relationship, or more vital historical link, with the United States than does the United Kingdom. Originally a British colony, the United States was founded largely by British settlers, whose off-spring eventually grew weary of English rule and revolted in 1776. Following independence from the UK, the newly created United States struggled at first with its former colonial master, and even fought a second war (the War of 1812) before relations gradually evolved from hostile to neutral during the 19th century. By the early 20th century, the US and UK were allies, fighting against Germany and its allies in World War I, and again during World War II, when American support for Britain proved vital for its survival. Together, American and British soldiers formed the core of Allied efforts that ultimately defeated Nazi Germany in the Second World War. US economic support after WWII also was key to the UK’s recovery from the destructive conflict, and as the Cold War unfolded against the Soviet Union, the US and UK became key partners in the defense of Western Europe through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

 
The American-British alliance continued strong even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and if anything, the events of 9/11 only brought the two governments even closer together. No other world leader was more solidly in President George W. Bush’s corner than Prime Minister Tony Blair when it came to the war on terror. British troops participated in the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. British intelligence echoed the claims of Bush administration officials that Saddam Hussein’s regime possessed weapons of mass destruction. London also provided public and private support to Washington in the handling of counter-terrorist efforts, including the controversial “renditioning” of suspected militants. Blair’s commitment to Bush’s anti-terror policies ultimately eroded British support at home, costing him his job as prime minister. Although the US-UK alliance is still quite strong, it remains to be seen what kind of bond is forged between Prime Minister Gordon Brown and President Barack Obama.
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Composed of England, Scotland, and Wales, Great Britain is an island separated from the European continent by the English Channel and the North Sea. Britain can be roughly divided into two distinct topographic regions, the lowlands in the southeast and the highlands in the west and north.

 
Population: 60.9 million
 
Religions: Anglican 38.7%, other Protestant (Methodist, Pentecostal) 18.7%, Catholic 13.3%, Muslim 2.6%, Hindu 1.0%, Sikh 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%, Buddhist 0.3%, Baha'i 0.1%, Chinese Universalist 0.1%, Spiritist 0.1%, non-religious 15%.
 
Ethnic Groups: English 77.0%, Scottish 7.9%, Welsh 4.5%, Northern Irish 2.7%, black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6%.
 
Languages: English (official) 91.2%, Welsh 0.8%, Scotts 0.2%, Irish Gaelic 0.2%, Scottish Gaelic 0.1%, Angloromani 0.1%, French (regionally official), Traveler Scottish, Cornish, Romani (Vlax, Welsh), Yinglish, Polari.
 
 
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History
Stonehenge and other examples of prehistoric culture are all that remain of the earliest inhabitants of Britain. Celtic peoples occupied the British Isles before Roman invasions of the 1st century BC. When the Roman legions withdrew in the 5th century, Britain fell easy prey to the invading hordes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from Scandinavia and the Low Countries. The invasions had little effect on the Celtic peoples of Wales and Scotland. Seven large Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were established, and the original Britons were forced into Wales and Scotland.
 
It was not until the 10th century that the country finally became united under the kings of Wessex. Following the death of Edward the Confessor, a dispute about the succession arose, and William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England, defeating the Saxon king, Harold II, at the Battle of Hastings (1066). The Norman conquest introduced French law and feudalism into Britain.
 
The reign of Henry II (1154–1189) saw an increasing centralization of royal power at the expense of the nobles,.although in 1215, King John (1199–1216) was forced to sign the Magna Carta, which awarded the people, especially the nobles, certain basic rights. Edward I (1272–1307) continued the conquest of Ireland, reduced Wales to subjection, and made some gains in Scotland. In 1314, however, English forces led by Edward II were ousted from Scotland after the Battle of Bannockburn.
 
The late 13th and early 14th centuries saw the development of a separate House of Commons with tax-raising powers. Edward III’s claim to the throne of France led to the Hundred Years’ War (1338–1453) and the loss of almost all the large English territory in France. In England, the great poverty and discontent caused by the war were intensified by the Black Death, a plague that reduced the population by about one-third. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485), a struggle for the throne between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, ended in the victory of Henry Tudor (Henry VII) at Bosworth Field (1485).
 
During the reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547), the church in England asserted its independence from the Roman Catholic Church. Under Edward VI and Mary, the two extremes of religious fanaticism were reached, and it remained for Henry’s daughter, Elizabeth I (1558–1603), to set up the Church of England on a moderate basis.
 
In 1588, the Spanish Armada, a fleet sent out by Catholic King Philip II of Spain, was defeated by the English and destroyed during a storm. During Elizabeth’s reign, England became a world power. Her heir was a Stuart—James VI of Scotland—who joined the two crowns as James I (1603–1625). The Stuart kings incurred large debts and were forced either to depend on parliament for taxes or to raise money by illegal means. In 1642, war broke out between Charles I and a large segment of the parliament; Charles was defeated and executed in 1649, and the monarchy was then abolished.
 
After the death in 1658 of Oliver Cromwell, the Puritan Commonwealth fell to pieces and Charles II was placed on the throne in 1660. The struggle between the king and parliament continued, however, after the departure of Charles II. His brother, James II (1685–1688), possessed none of Charles II’s ability and was ousted by the Revolution of 1688, which confirmed the primacy of parliament. James’s daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, then ruled.
 
Queen Anne’s reign (1702–1714) was marked by the Duke of Marlborough’s victories over France in the War of the Spanish Succession. England and Scotland meanwhile were joined by the Act of Union (1707). Upon the death of Anne, the distant claims of the elector of Hanover were recognized, and he became king of Great Britain and Ireland as George I. The unwillingness of the Hanoverian kings to rule resulted in the formation by the royal ministers of a cabinet, headed by a prime minister, which directed all public business.
 
Abroad, the constant wars with France expanded the British Empire all over the globe, particularly in North America and India. This imperial growth was checked by the revolt of the American colonies (1775–1781). Struggles with France broke out again in 1793 and during the Napoleonic Wars, which ended at Waterloo in 1815.
 
The Victorian era, named after Queen Victoria (1837–1901), saw the growth of a democratic system of government that had begun with the Reform Bill of 1832. The two important wars in Victoria’s reign were the Crimean War against Russia (1854–1856) and the Boer War (1899–1902), the latter enormously extending Britain’s influence in Africa.
 
Increasing uneasiness at home and abroad marked the reign of Edward VII (1901–1910). Within four years of the accession of George V in 1910, Britain entered World War I when Germany invaded Belgium. The nation was led by coalition cabinets, headed first by Herbert Asquith and then, starting in 1916, by the Welsh statesman David Lloyd George. Postwar labor unrest culminated in the general strike of 1926.
 
King Edward VIII succeeded to the throne on January 20, 1936, after his father’s death. He abdicated on December 11, 1936 (in order to marry an American divorcée, Wallis Warfield Simpson), in favor of his brother, who became George VI.
 
The efforts of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to stem the rising threat of Nazism in Germany failed with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which was followed by Britain’s entry into World War II two days later. Chamberlain resigned the following year, leading to the formation of another coalition war cabinet by the Conservative leader, Winston Churchill, who led Britain through most of World War II.
 
Churchill resigned shortly after V-E Day, on May 8, 1945, but then formed a “caretaker” government that remained in office until after the parliamentary elections in July, which the Labour Party won overwhelmingly. The new government, formed by Clement R. Attlee, began a moderate socialist program.
 
In 1951, Churchill again became prime minister at the head of a Conservative government. George VI died on February 6, 1952, and was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth II. Churchill stepped down in 1955 in favor of Sir Anthony Eden, who resigned on grounds of ill health in 1957 and was succeeded by Harold Macmillan and Sir Alec Douglas-Home. In 1964, Harold Wilson led the Labour Party to victory. A lagging economy brought the Conservatives back to power in 1970. Prime Minister Edward Heath won Britain’s admission to the European Community. Margaret Thatcher became Britain’s first woman prime minister as the Conservatives won 339 seats on May 3, 1979.
 
An Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands on April 2, 1982, involved Britain in a war 8,000 miles from the home islands. Argentina had long claimed the Falklands, known as the Malvinas in Spanish, which had been occupied by the British since 1832. Britain won a decisive victory within six weeks when more than 11,000 Argentine troops on the Falklands surrendered on June 14, 1982.
 
Although there were continuing economic problems and foreign policy disputes, an upswing in the economy in 1986–1987 led Thatcher to call elections in June, and she won a near-unprecedented third consecutive term. The unpopularity of Thatcher’s poll tax, together with an uncompromising position toward further European integration, eroded support within her own party. When John Major won the Conservative Party leadership, Thatcher resigned, paving the way for Major to assume power.
 
Eighteen years of Conservative rule ended in May 1997 when Tony Blair and the Labour Party triumphed in the British elections. Blair had been compared to then-US president Bill Clinton for his youthful, telegenic personality and centrist views. He produced constitutional reform that partially decentralized the UK, leading to the formation of separate parliaments in Wales and Scotland by 1999. Britain turned over its colony of Hong Kong to China in July 1997.
 
Blair’s controversial meeting in October 1997 with Sinn Fein’s president, Gerry Adams, was the first meeting in 76 years between a British prime minister and a Sinn Fein leader. It infuriated numerous factions but was a symbolic gesture in support of the nascent peace talks in Northern Ireland. In 1998, the Good Friday Agreement, strongly supported by Tony Blair, led to the first promise of peace between Catholics and Protestants since the beginning of the so-called Troubles.
 
Along with the US, Britain launched air strikes against Iraq in December 1998 after Saddam Hussein expelled UN arms inspectors. In the spring of 1999, Britain spearheaded the NATO operation in Kosovo, which resulted in Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic’s withdrawal from the territory.
 
In February 2001, foot-and-mouth disease broke out among British livestock, prompting other nations to ban British meat imports and forcing the slaughter of thousands of cattle, pigs, and sheep in an effort to stem the highly contagious disease.
 
In June 2001, Blair won a second landslide victory, with the Labour Party capturing 413 seats in parliament.
 
Britain became the staunchest ally of the US after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. British troops joined the US in the bombing campaign against Afghanistan in October 2001, after the Taliban-led government refused to turn over the prime suspect behind the terrorist attacks, Osama bin Laden.
 
Blair again proved himself to be the strongest international supporter of the US in September 2002, becoming President George W. Bush’s major ally in calling for a war against Iraq. Blair maintained that military action was justified because Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction that were a direct threat. He supported the Bush administration’s hawkish policies despite significant opposition in his own party and the British public. In March 2003, a London Times newspaper poll indicated that only 19% of respondents approved of military action without a UN mandate. As the inevitability of the US strike on Iraq grew nearer, Blair announced that he would join the US in fighting Iraq with or without a second UN resolution. Three of his ministers resigned as a result. Britain entered the war on March 20, supplying 45,000 troops.
 
In the aftermath of the war, Blair came under fire from government officials for allegedly exaggerating Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction. In July 2003, Blair announced that “history would forgive” the UK and US “if we are wrong” and that the end to the “inhuman carnage and suffering” caused by Saddam Hussein was justification enough for the war. The arguments about the war grew so vociferous between the Blair government and the BBC that a prominent weapons scientist, David Kelly, who was caught in the middle, committed suicide. In Jan. 2004, the Hutton Report asserted that the Blair administration had not “sexed-up” the intelligence dossier, denouncing an accusation put forth by BBC reporter Andrew Gilligan. The report strongly criticized the BBC for its “defective” editorial policies, and as a consequence, the BBC’s top management resigned. In July 2004, the Butler Report on pre–Iraq war British intelligence was released. It echoed the findings of the US Senate Intelligence Committee that the intelligence had vastly exaggerated Saddam Hussein’s threat. The famous claim that Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons were “deployable within 45 minutes of an order to use them” was especially singled out as highly misleading. But like the US report, it cleared the government of any role in manipulating the intelligence.
 
On May 5, 2005, Blair won a historic third term as the country’s prime minister. Despite this victory, the Labour Party was severely hurt in the elections, winning just 36% of the national vote, the lowest percentage by a ruling party in British history. The Conservative Party won 33%, and the Liberal Democrats 22%. Blair acknowledged that the reason for the poor showing was Britain’s involvement in the war in Iraq.
 
On July 7, 2005, London suffered its worst attack since World War II. Four bombs exploded in three subway stations and on one double-decker bus during the morning rush hour, killing 52 and wounding more than 700. Four Muslim men, three of them British-born, were identified as the suicide bombers. On July 21, terrorists attempted another attack on the transit system, but the bombs failed to explode. A leaked document by a top British government official warned Prime Minister Blair more than a year before the bombings that Britain’s engagement in Iraq was fueling Islamic extremism, but Blair repeatedly denied such a link, contending that the bombings were the result of an “evil ideology” that had taken root before the Iraq war. Blair proposed legislation that would toughen the country’s antiterrorism measures, and he suffered his first major political defeat as prime minister in November, when his proposal that terrorist suspects could be held without charge for up to 90 days was rejected.
 
In April 2006, the Blair government weathered a major scandal when it was revealed that since 1999 it had released 1,023 foreign convicts—among them murderers and rapists—into British society instead of deporting them to their countries of origin.
 
In August 2006, London police foiled a major terrorist plot to destroy several airplanes traveling from Britain to the US. Intelligence sources asserted that the plan was close to execution, and had it succeeded, it would have been the deadliest terrorist attack since Sept. 11. A number of young men, most of whom were Britons of Pakistani descent, were arrested in connection with the plot.
 
Blair announced in February 2007 that as many as 1,600 of the 7,100 troops stationed in southern Iraq would leave in the next few months. On June 27, he stepped down as prime minister. Gordon Brown succeeded him. Typically dour, Brown lacked Blair’s charisma and quick wit. The new prime minister faced the task of shoring up the Labour Party and regaining the public’s trust.
 
Just two days into Brown’s term, police defused two bombs found in cars parked in the West End section of London. The attackers, who officials said were linked to al-Qaeda, tried and failed to detonate the bombs using cell phones. Police detained several foreign-born suspects, several of whom were doctors. The next day, on June 30, an SUV carrying bombs burst into flames after it slammed into an entrance to Glasgow Airport.
 
In July 2007, four Islamist men, all originally from the Horn of Africa, were sentenced to life in prison by a British judge for attempting to bomb the London transit system on July 21, 2005.
 
On June 11, 2008, despite much opposition, a new counterterrorism bill passed by a nine-vote margin in the House of Commons. The bill allows the detention of terrorism suspects for up to 42 days without charges, extending the current 28-day detention limit. But on October 13, 2008, in a setback for Brown, the House of Lords rejected the bill in a 309 to 118 vote.
 
In December 2008, amidst global economic and financial turmoil, the Bank of England cut interest rates by one percentage point, from 3% to 2%—the lowest level since 1951.
 
Gordon Brown and Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki made a joint announcement in December 2008, stating that all British troops would be withdrawn from Iraq by the end of July 2009.
 
 

 

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History of U.S. Relations with United Kingdom

The English were the first Europeans to establish permanent settlements in America, beginning with Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620. The first Jamestown settlement, comprised of single men hunting for gold and easily exportable goods, flirted with failure until the 1630s when the colony reoriented itself to a stable agricultural economy with lucrative tobacco exports. Many of these early immigrants, most notably the Puritans who settled in Massachusetts Bay and the Quakers in Pennsylvania, came seeking religious freedom. Some even sought refuge from religious persecution within America, such as Roger Williams who founded the state of Rhode Island as a haven for freedom of religion. These religious immigrants characterized the demographic in New England; sometimes whole congregations would pack up and move together. In the South, however, the majority of arrivals came seeking economic opportunity, often signing contracts exchanging their passage over the Atlantic for a few years of labor before acquiring their own tracts of land to till. Besides farmers, these servants worked as craftsmen, tradesmen, and laborers. 

 
By the last decade of the 17th century, the English comprised 90% of European settlers in America. In the 18th century, the percentage of female immigrants increased slightly, from 15% to 25%. Along with these women came 30,000 male and female prisoners between 1717 and 1776, banished to America to serve their terms as agricultural laborers or servants. According to the 1790 census, only 60% of the 4.5 million Europeans living in the newly formed US were English. However, by dominating the highest echelons of the political and social hierarchy, they had ensured the legacy of England’s culture and institutions in America. 
 
Immigration was minimal in the period between the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. This was partly because of Britain’s new commitments in India and Latin America, and because of the emigration restrictions that England placed on its own craftsmen. In addition, there were restrictions placed on suspected British sympathizers in America, which also deterred immigration. Although 19th century immigration was defined by the influx of continental Europeans, the English continued to cross the Atlantic in significant numbers. After picking up in the 1820s, annual English immigration reached 60,000 in the 1860s before peaking at 80,000 in 1882 and 1888. The American depression in 1893 curbed the flow of economic migrants and English immigration never again reached its former heights. In addition, Australia and Canada offered more attractive immigration policies and economic opportunities. 
 
Immigration picked up again in the first three decades of the 20th century, with the English constituting 6% of European immigrants. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, reverse immigrants outnumbered arrivals, as people fled back to England in search of work. This tide was reversed again with the conclusion of World War II, when a flood of war brides came to America with their veteran husbands (there were four women for every man arriving during this period). In the second half of the 20th century, the English constituted 12%-18% of European immigrants. In opposition to previous trends, many of these immigrants came from the middle and upper classes, either lured by high-paying jobs at American multinational corporations, or because of the tax structure which was less demanding for the very wealthy.
 
Between 1763 and 1775, about 40,000 Scottish immigrants arrived in America. A number of Quaker and Presbyterian Scots formed colonies in East Jersey and South Carolina, fleeing the religious persecution imposed by the Episcopalian Church of Scotland. These Scots tended to immigrate in groups, a legacy of their clan-based society. Scots became known for their taste for adventure: they were highly represented in western expansion, and played a major role in the military. Highland Scots were instrumental in protecting southeastern British colonies from the Spanish in Florida. These same Highland Scots (distinguished from the Lowland Scots by their adherence to Catholicism) were uniquely vocal in their opposition to slavery in the south, as opposed to other British colonists who were eager to utilize forced labor to amass their own fortunes. The ebb and flow of Scottish immigration reflected economic conditions at home: a particularly harsh recession in the 1920s pushed a significant wave of Scots to America's shores. Today the states containing the greatest number of people claiming Scottish ancestry are California, Florida, Texas, New York, and Michigan.
 
In the 17th century some 200,000 Lowland Protestant Scots were encouraged to move to Northern Ireland by the British government in an attempt to establish a more prominent, more governable Protestant population in Ireland. Between 1763 and 1775, about 55,000 Scotch-Irish arrived in America. Unlike their Scottish brethren, they usually immigrated individually or as families, and were motivated to move for economic rather than religious reasons. The largest wave arrived following the catastrophic Irish Potato Famine of 1845-1852, which killed two million people. Today the largest populations of Scotch-Irish reside in California, Texas, North Carolina, Florida, and Pennsylvania.
 
The Welsh came early to America, perhaps as early as 1170 according to popular Welsh legends. Anecdotal stories tell of Prince Madoc ap Owain Gwynedd, who led an expedition of discovery centuries before Columbus, and left a legacy of shared blood and language with the Native Americans. Motivated by these tales, the Welsh were among the first to come to America, and also were some of the most adventurous explorers within America. John Evans, a Welsh explorer, journeyed through the wilderness of the Missouri river in 1792 (seven years before the Louis and Clarke Expedition) in an attempt to find his long-lost cousins.
 
Prior to the passage in Britain of the Religious Toleration Act of 1689, many Welsh came to America seeking religious freedom from the oppressive policies of the dominant Anglican Church. Immigration picked up again in the late 18th century, when poor harvests in Wales and news of available land in the fertile Ohio River valley catalyzed another wave of immigration. The 19th century saw a demographic change in immigrants, as laborers and innovative industrialists from Wales’ successful iron and tinplate industries came to America. From the Civil War era to the end of World War I, Scranton, Pennsylvania was home to the largest Welsh population outside of the United Kingdom. 
 
After America’s depression in 1893, Welsh emigrants began seeking other destinations such as Australia, which offered greater opportunities. Due to their early exploratory tendencies, as well as their desire for isolation to maintain their national identity, Welsh immigrants spread far and wide across the US. They are more evenly distributed across the Northeast, Midwest, South and West than any other European-American group. 
 
US-UK Political History
The British established the first colonies in the New World during the 1700s. Prefaced by the French and Indian War, tensions escalated between the colonies and the British Crown from 1765 to 1775 over issues of taxation and control, eventually leading to the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776, and British military efforts to defeat the Americans ultimately failed. American independence was recognized by Britain in 1783.
 
In 1791, Britain sent its first official envoy, George Hammond, to the US. When Great Britain and France went to war again in 1793, relations between the US and UK verged on war. However, the two countries signed the Jay Treaty in 1794 which established a decade of peace and prosperous trade relations. This lasted until 1805. Relations deteriorated as the United States imposed trade embargoes, such as the Embargo Act of 1807, and the Royal Navy boarded American ships to impress British-born sailors.
 
During the early stages of the War of 1812, American forces attacked the British colony of Canada, including the burning of York. The assault was ultimately a failure, and in 1814 the British raided Washington and burned down the White House. After the United States gained naval control of the Great Lakes, which prevented British attack from Canada, negotiations led to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war.
 
Antagonism between the two nations gradually subsided during the remainder of the 19th century. By the early 20th century, the US became a staunch ally of England, siding with it during World War I and World War II. Participation in the latter conflict was especially critical for Britain’s survival, which found itself cutoff from the rest of Europe and in desperate need of supplies. The US sent waves of convoys across the Atlantic Ocean, battling German submarines (U-boats) and keeping Britain fortified while American and British leaders forged a coordinated response that eventually defeated Nazi Germany.
 
At the end of World War II, the US and Britain became two of the founding members of the United Nations, as well as two of the five permanent members of the Security Council. Both were suspicious of the motives of their former ally, the Soviet Union, under Joseph Stalin. Rising tensions between the capitalist and communist powers led to the Cold War, and an era of close cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom. From this cooperation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed as a mutual-defense alliance.
 
As the British Empire dissolved throughout the world, the US became one of two world superpowers along with the Soviet Union. The United Kingdom became the most important partner with the United States on the Western side of the Cold War. Forces from both countries were involved in the Korean War (1950-1952), fighting under United Nations command.
 
But not all was rosy between the two countries. The US demanded that the United Kingdom (and France) end their invasion of Egypt in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. During the United States’ protracted war in Vietnam, the British government, under Harold Wilson, refused to send troops to fight alongside American soldiers. Protests against the introduction of US medium-range nuclear missiles on British soil became a feature of British politics in the 1980s. However Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher stood in solidarity with the Reagan administration’s decision to base the controversial weapons. Thatcher was strongly supportive of President Reagan’s stance towards the Soviet Union. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, both the Americans and the British provided arms to the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen rebels.
 
In the 1982 Falklands War, Washington initially tried to mediate between the United Kingdom and Argentina, but ultimately supported British military efforts, both politically and militarily.
 
In the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the United States and the United Kingdom provided the largest forces for the coalition army that liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation. 
 
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Current U.S. Relations with United Kingdom

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, in which a number of UK citizens were also killed, there was an enormous outpouring of sympathy from the United Kingdom for the United States. Accordingly, Prime Minister Tony Blair became President George W. Bush’s strongest international supporter. British forces participated in the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the United Kingdom, as well as Commonwealth nations such as Canada and Australia, supported the United States in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. France, Germany, China and Russia, however, did not show such support. After the United States, the United Kingdom contributed the most troops to the coalition that entered Iraq. But by 2007, British support for the Iraq war had radically declined.

 
That year, Foreign Secretary David Miliband insisted that the US would continue to be the UK’s most important partner. His assertion came after comments from two other ministers that seemed to hint at a cooling of relations with the US. New Foreign Office Minister Lord Malloch Brown claimed the UK and the US would no longer be “joined at the hip” on foreign policy. Meanwhile, in a speech against unilateralism, International Development Secretary Douglas Alexander called for an “internationalist approach” to global problems, which was viewed as a repudiation of President Bush’s cowboy diplomacy.
 
In the 2000 US census, 24,514,199 people identified themselves as being of English ancestry;
4,319,232 people identified themselves as being of Scottish-Irish ancestry; 4,890,581 people identified themselves as being of Scottish ancestry; and 1,753,794 people identified themselves as being of Welsh ancestry.
 
The number of Americans visiting the United Kingdom has fluctuated between a low of 3,346,000 (2003) and high of 3,896,380 (2006) since 2002.
 
The number of citizens from the United Kingdom visiting the US grew consistently between 2002 (3,816,736 tourists) and 2005 (4,344,957 tourists) before decreasing slightly in 2006 (4,176,211 tourists).
 
U.S.-UK Relations at the Start of the 21st Century (Edited by Jeffrey D. McCausland and Douglas T. Stuart, National Defense University)
Coming to America (by Jessica Au, Newsweek)
US-UK Relations (US Politics Today)
Top of the Agenda: U.K.-U.S. Economic Meetings (Council on Foreign Relations)
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Where Does the Money Flow

The United Kingdom is the fifth-largest market for US exports, after Canada, Mexico, Japan, and China; and the sixth-largest supplier of US imports after Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany. US exports of goods and services to the United Kingdom in 2008 totaled $53.7 billion, while US imports from the UK totaled $58.6 billion. The United States has had a trade deficit with the United Kingdom since 1998.

 
The single largest import by the US is pharmaceuticals, which steadily increased between 2004-2008 from $6.4 billion to $11.05 billion.
 
Other top imports from the UK include petroleum products, rising from $1.9 billion to $4.6 billion; passenger cars, which actually has declined from $4.8 billion to $3.9 billion; crude oil, another import in decline ($3.7 billion to $2.5 billion); and engines for civilian aircraft, rising from $1.8 billion to $2.09 billion.
 
In recent years, the UK has been buying up non-monetary gold from the US, making it the single largest American export item. From 2004-2008, purchases of gold have skyrocketed from $602 million to $5.2 billion.
 
Other leading exports include pharmaceutical preparations, rising from $2.3 billion to $4.04 billion; civilian aircraft purchases (including engines and parts), increasing from $4 billion to $6 billion; telecommunications equipment, which has averaged $1.4 billion annually; and computer accessories, which has declined from $2.2 billion to $1.1 billion.
 
The US and the UK share the world’s largest foreign direct investment partnership. US investment in the United Kingdom reached $324 billion in 2005, while UK direct investment in the US totaled $282 billion. This investment sustained more than 1 million American jobs.
 
The US sold $8.28 billion of defense articles and services to the United Kingdom in 2007.
 
The US does not give aid to Great Britain
 
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Controversies

British Officials Outraged over American Renditions on UK Soil

In 2008, Members of Parliament and human rights groups demanded an independent inquiry into the use of UK territory by CIA “torture flights,” as fresh questions emerged over the government’s handling of the issue. David Miliband, the British foreign secretary, apologized to MPs, admitting that contrary to “earlier explicit assurances” two flights had landed at Diego Garcia, the British Indian Ocean territory where the US has a large airbase. He said the flights had refueled there, and each had had a single detainee on board who did not leave the aircraft. British and US officials refused to give details about the two detainees other than that one was in Guantánamo Bay and the other had been released.
 
British officials said they were “working behind the scenes” in an attempt to get more information from the Americans. Lord Malloch Brown, the Foreign Office minister, spoke to Manfred Novak, the UN’s special investigator on torture, about the alleged use of Diego Garcia as a detention centre to hold US suspects. Novak said he had credible evidence, from sources he could not reveal, that detainees were held on the island between 2002 and 2003. British officials said they had no evidence of this. Some representatives of human rights groups suggested records of the CIA flights may have been destroyed.
Fresh questions on torture flights spark demands for inquiry (by Richard Norton-Taylor and Duncan Campbell, The Guardian)
 
UK, US Spar over Stealth Fighter Technology
A top British official threatened in 2006 to pull out of the multinational, $256 billion Joint Strike Fighter project, owing to complaints about the United States’ unwillingness to share stealth technology used in the aircraft. British defense officials demanded access to specific software codes and weapons systems and threatened to “go elsewhere” to upgrade their warplanes if the US did not comply. “We have a backup plan if we do not get a deal that’s sufficiently workable,” a Ministry of Defense spokesman said. The British press has speculated that the Rafale, the latest fighter by French-based Dassault Aviation, is one alternative.
 
From the point of view of the Joint Program Office in Washington, where the US military and representatives of eight other partner nations manage the Joint Strike Fighter project, the US government has already been generous with its technology. “The British have been provided more information than ever before due to their ‘Level 1’ partner status in JSF development, but not everything,” said spokeswoman Cheryl Irwin.
 
The British said they remained committed to the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, for which they’ve already spent $2 billion and plan to buy 150 of the jets when they are ready some time next decade. But for the first time, Britain was asserting its right to use and maintain joint weapons systems on its own terms. “This is not just hot air. The UK are actually backing themselves into a very tight corner and challenging the US to call their bluff,” said a security expert. A recent agreement between Britain and France to build a new fleet of aircraft carriers showed “it’s not outside the realm of possibility that the UK has a serious Plan B.”
 
American Ambassador Flubs Facts, Called ‘Little Crook’
The US embassy in London was forced to issue a correction in 2005 to an interview given by then-Ambassador Robert Tuttle, in which he claimed the United States would not fly suspected terrorists to Syria, which has one of the worst torture records in the Middle East. The embassy was forced to confirm media reports that a suspect had in fact been taken from the US to Syria. The misstep followed his earlier gaffe when he vigorously denied British media reports that American forces used white phosphorus as a weapon in Iraq, only to be undercut by an admission of its use from the Pentagon the next day.
 
Tuttle also garnered media attention for refusing to pay the London congestion charge, claiming it is a form of taxation that diplomats and their staff are exempt from paying. London officials consider the charge to be a fee for service rather than a tax, and pointed out that other embassies in London paid it. In March 2006, London Mayor Ken Livingstone said that Tuttle was trying to “skive out of [paying] like some chiseling little crook.” A survey published in 2007 showed that the United States owed £1.5 million in outstanding congestion charge payments. Livingstone again chided Tuttle, and called him a “venal little crook” for his refusal to pay.
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Human Rights

According to the State Department, in July 2008, the British Ministry of Defense agreed to pay 2.8 million pounds (approximately $4 million) to the family of Iraqi civilian Baha Mousa, who died in 2003 after suffering 93 injuries during a 36-hour detention by British troops in Iraq. In 2007 a court martial sentenced a soldier to one year in prison and dismissed him from the army for the inhumane treatment of Mousa. Six other soldiers were acquitted; no one was convicted in the death

 
There continued to be allegations that members of the military services were at least complicit, if not participants, in the torture of detainees overseas, that individual police officers occasionally abused detainees, and that guards under contract to immigration authorities abused deportees while returning them to their home countries. Police are subject to oversight by the Independent Police Complaints Commission, which investigates charges of abuse and has the power to punish police officers if abuse is found.
 
Member of Parliament John McDonnell accused the intelligence services of colluding in the torture of one of his constituents by Pakistani authorities. During the year, several citizens, all UK Pakistani dual nationals, made similar charges.
 
Police may detain an ordinary criminal suspect for 96 hours without charging him or her. However, detention for more than 24 hours must be authorized by a senior police official, and detention of more than 60 hours requires the approval of a magistrate. No one except terrorism suspects may be detained without charge longer than 96 hours.
 
Authorities may hold terrorism suspects for up to 28 days before formally charging them; they are entitled to counsel during this period. A government bill to extend the period of detention without charges from 28 to 42 days in terrorist cases was a significant source of controversy during 2008; the bill was withdrawn after leaders in the House of Lords indicated it would be defeated there. Existing law permits the extended detention of foreigners who are suspected of being terrorists but who cannot be deported immediately because of the risk they would be tortured or executed in their countries of destination. Such individuals may appeal their designation as terror suspects.
 
On April 9, 2008, the Court of Appeal ruled that radical preacher Abu Qatada, whose “inspirational” tapes were found in the German apartments used by Mohammad Atta and other 9/11 terrorists, could not be deported to Jordan because his human rights might be violated there.
 
In 2008, legislation requiring telephone companies to retain information about landline and cellular telephone calls took full effect. The legislation requires that the retained information may be made available, without a warrant, to over 700 governmental organizations, including the police, the National Health Service, and other social services. The Ministry of Justice, responsible for implementing the legislation, denied that the data was at risk of being compromised.
 
The use of electronic surveillance requires the approval of the home secretary, who authorizes an “interception warrant,” which must name or describe either one person, or a single set of premises, where the interception is to take place. However, in limited circumstances, the home secretary may issue a “certified” interception warrant, eliminating the requirement to specify a person or premises. Certified warrants are intended only for communications with overseas parties. They include communications channeled through a foreign Internet service provider (ISP). An independent “interception of communications commissioner” oversaw interception warrants, and the Investigatory Powers Tribunal investigated public complaints of surveillance abuses.
 
On July 3, 2008, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled that the British government’s telephone tapping practices violated the right to privacy. Describing the government’s powers to tap private telephone conversations and Internet connections as “virtually unfettered,” the court ruled that the government’s right to intrude on private conversations could not be indiscriminant and that limits needed t obe implemented. The case that precipitated the ruling was brought to the public’s attention by British and Irish human rights groups, after the Irish authorities asked the government whether it was monitoring Irish telephone conversations.
 
There were no official statistics on the number of trafficking victims. However, in a July 3, 2008 report, police estimated (based on arrests, including from raids on bordellos and statements from those intercepted at the borders) that between 6,000 and 18,000 women and children were engaged in prostitution involuntarily, the majority trafficked from abroad. Regions of origin included Central and Eastern Europe, primarily the Balkans and the former Soviet Union, and Asia, including China. Most victims were women trafficked for sexual exploitation. Women, men, and children were also trafficked for labor exploitation in domestic service, agricultural and rural labor, construction, and catering.
 
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors

 

The post of US Ambassador to the Court of St. James (United Kingdom) was once a stepping stone for future US presidents. From the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, no less than five future presidents served as America’s top diplomat to England: John Adams, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren, and James Buchanan.
 
Other prominent figures who have held the ambassadorship include John W. Davis, the Democratic nominee for president in 1924 (loser to Calvin Coolidge), millionaire Andrew W. Mellon, Joseph P. Kennedy, patriarch of the Kennedy family and son to future President John F. Kennedy, billionaire Walter Annenberg, and Elliot Richardson, the US Attorney General who was fired as part of the “Saturday Night Massacre” by President Richard Nixon during the Watergate investigation.

 
John Adams
Appointment: Feb 24, 1785
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 1, 1785
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience, Feb 20, 1788
Note: Commissioned to the court of Great Britain; also accredited to the Netherlands.
 
Thomas Pinckney
Appointment: Jan 12, 1792
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 9, 1792
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jul 27, 1796
Note: Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
Rufus King
Appointment: May 20, 1796
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 27, 1796
Termination of Mission: Presented recall on or shortly before May 16, 1803
Note: Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
James Monroe
Appointment: Apr 18, 1803
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 17, 1803
Termination of Mission: Presented recall Oct 7, 1807
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Nov 18, 1803. Commissioned to the court of His Britannic Majesty.
 
William Pinkney
Appointment: Feb 26, 1808
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 27, 1808
Termination of Mission: Left England on or soon after May 7, 1811
Note: Originally commissioned as Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of His Britannic Majesty and given a letter of credence as such, May 12, 1806—on the same day that he and Monroe were accredited jointly as Commissioners Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary on a special mission. When Monroe was preparing to leave London, he informed the Foreign Secretary that Pinkney would succeed him in the ordinary duties of the Legation; the British authorities declined to accept Pinkney's 1806 letter of credence, but dealt with him informally until he was recommissioned and reaccredited.
 
Jonathan Russell
Appointment: [Jul 27, 1811 ]
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 15, 1811
Termination of Mission: The U.S. declared war on Great Britain, Jun 18, 1812; Russell received unofficial notice of this, Jul 29, 1812, and suspended his official functions
Note: Commission (issued during a recess of the Senate) not of record, but enclosed with an instruction of Jul 27, 1811.
 
John Quincy Adams
Appointment: Feb 28, 1815
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 8, 1815
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 14, 1817
Note: Commissioned to the court of the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Richard Rush
Appointment: 1817
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 12, 1818
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Apr 27, 1825
Note: Month and day not included on record copy of commission, which was issued during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 16, 1817. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Rufus King
Appointment: May 5, 1825
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 11, 1825
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, 16-Jun 23, 1826
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 20, 1825. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Albert Gallatin
Appointment: May 10, 1826
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 1, 1826
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 4, 1827
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
James Barbour
Appointment: May 23, 1828
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 24, 1828
Termination of Mission: Left post on or shortly before Oct 1, 1829
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Louis McLane
Appointment: Apr 18, 1829
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 12, 1829
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience on or shortly before Jun 13, 1831
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 10, 1830. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Martin Van Buren
Appointment: Aug 1, 1831
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 21, 1831
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience, Mar 19, 1832
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Nomination later rejected by the Senate.
 
Aaron Vail
Appointment: Jul 13, 1832
Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]
Termination of Mission: Superseded, Jul 13, 1836
Note: No report has been found concerning Vail's presentation of credentials as Chargé d'Affaires en titre; he had been received as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim on Apr 4, 1832. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Andrew Stevenson
Appointment: Mar 16, 1836
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 13, 1836
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Oct 21, 1841
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Nomination of May 20, 1834 rejected by the Senate; nomination of Feb 1, 1836 confirmed.
 
Edward Everett
Appointment: Sep 13, 1841
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 16, 1841
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 8, 1845
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Louis McLane
Appointment: Jun 16, 1845
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 8, 1845
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Aug 18, 1849
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 23, 1845. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
George Bancroft
Appointment: Sep 9, 1846
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 12, 1846
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Aug 31, 1849
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 23, 1846. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Abbott Lawrence
Appointment: Aug 20, 1849
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 20, 1849
Termination of Mission: Transmitted recall by note, Oct 12, 1852
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jun 24, 1850. Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
Joseph R. Ingersoll
Appointment: Aug 21, 1852
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 16, 1852
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 23, 1853
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
James Buchanan
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 11, 1853
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 23, 1853
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Mar 15, 1856
Note: Commissioned to the court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
George M. Dallas
Appointment: Feb 4, 1856
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 4, 1856
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 16, 1861
Note: Commissioned to the court of Her Britannic Majesty.
 
Charles Francis Adams
Appointment: Mar 20, 1861
Presentation of Credentials: May 16, 1861
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 13, 1868
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
George B. McClellan
Note: Not commissioned; nomination rejected by the Senate.
 
Reverdy Johnson
Appointment: Jun 12, 1868
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 14, 1868
Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge, May 13, 1869
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
J. Lothrop Motley
Appointment: Apr 13, 1869
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 18, 1869
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 6, 1870
Note: Commissioned to England.
 
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen
Appointment: Jul 15, 1870
Note: Commissioned to London; declined appointment.
 
Oliver T. Morton
Appointment: Sep 23, 1870
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Commissioned to London; declined appointment.
 
Robert C. Schenck
Appointment: Dec 22, 1870
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 23, 1871
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 3, 1876
 
Richard H. Dana, Jr.
Note: Not commissioned; nomination rejected by the Senate.
 
Edwards Pierrepont
Appointment: May 22, 1876
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 11, 1876
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 22, 1877
 
John Welsh
Appointment: Nov 9, 1877
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 22, 1877
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 14, 1879
 
James Russell Lowell
Appointment: Jan 26, 1880
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 11, 1880
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 19, 1885
 
Edward J. Phelps
Appointment: Mar 23, 1885
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 19, 1885
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 31, 1889
 
Robert T. Lincoln
Appointment: Mar 30, 1889
Presentation of Credentials: May 25, 1889
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 4, 1893
 
Thomas F. Bayard
Appointment: Mar 30, 1893
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 22, 1893
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 17, 1897
 
John Hay
Appointment: Mar 19, 1893
Presentation of Credentials: May 3, 1897
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 12, 1898
 
Joseph Choate
Appointment: Jan 19, 1899
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 6, 1899
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 23, 1905
 
Whitelaw Reid
Appointment: Mar 8, 1905
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 5, 1905
Termination of Mission: Died at post Dec 15, 1912
 
Walter Hines Page
Appointment: Apr 21, 1913
Presentation of Credentials: May 30, 1913
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 3, 1918
 
John W. Davis
Appointment: Nov 21, 1918
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 18, 1918
Termination of Mission: Left England, Mar 9, 1921
 
George Harvey
Appointment: Apr 16, 1921
Presentation of Credentials: May 12, 1921
Termination of Mission: Left England, Nov 3, 1923
 
Frank B. Kellogg
Appointment: Dec 11, 1923
Presentation of Credentials: Jan 14, 1924
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Feb 10, 1925
 
Alanson B. Houghton
Appointment: Feb 24, 1925
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 27, 1925
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 28, 1929
 
Charles G. Dawes
Appointment: Apr 16, 1929
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 15, 1929
Termination of Mission: Left post Dec 30, 1931
 
Andrew W. Mellon
Appointment: Feb 5, 1932
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 9, 1932
Termination of Mission: Left England, Mar 17, 1933
 
Robert Worth Bingham
Appointment: Mar 23, 1933
Presentation of Credentials: May 23, 1933
Termination of Mission: Left England, Nov 19, 1937
 
Joseph P. Kennedy
Appointment: Jan 17, 1938
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 8, 1938
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 22, 1940
 
John G. Winant
Appointment: Feb 11, 1941
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 1, 1941
Termination of Mission: Appointment terminated, Apr 10, 1946
 
W. Averell Harriman
Appointment: Apr 2, 1946
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 30, 1946
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 1, 1946
 
O. Max Gardner
Appointment: [Dec 6, 1946]
Note: Took oath of office, but died in the United States before proceeding to post. A commission signed by the President during a recess of the Senate, which had not yet been dated and attested, was returned to the President by the Acting Secretary on Dec 6, 1946, Gardner having declined a recess appointment. Recommissioned Jan 13, 1947.
 
Lewis W. Douglas
Appointment: Mar 6, 1947
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 25, 1947
Termination of Mission: Left post Nov 16, 1950
 
Walter S. Gifford
Appointment: Sep 29, 1950
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Did not serve under this appointment.
Appointment: Dec 12, 1950
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 21, 1950
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 23, 1953
 
Winthrop W. Aldrich
Appointment: Feb 2, 1953
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 20, 1953
Termination of Mission: Left England, Feb 1, 1957
 
John Hay Whitney
Appointment: Feb 11, 1957
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 28, 1957
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 14, 1961
 
David K.E. Bruce
Appointment: Feb 22, 1961
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 17, 1961
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 20, 1969
 
Walter H. Annenberg
Appointment: Mar 14, 1969
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 29, 1969
Termination of Mission: Left post Oct 30, 1974
 
Elliot L. Richardson
Appointment: Feb 20, 1975
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 21, 1975
Termination of Mission: Left post Jan 16, 1976
 
Anne Legendre Armstrong
Appointment: Jan 29, 1976
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 17, 1976
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 3, 1977
 
Kingman Brewster, Jr.
Appointment: Apr 29, 1977
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 3, 1977
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 23, 1981
 
John J. Louis, Jr.
Appointment: May 7, 1981
Presentation of Credentials: May 27, 1981
Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge, Nov 7, 1983
 
Charles H. Price, II
Appointment: Nov 11, 1983
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 20, 1983
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 28, 1989
 
Henry E. Catto, Jr.
Appointment: Apr 14, 1989
Presentation of Credentials: May 17, 1989
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 13, 1991
 
Raymond George Hardenbergh Seitz
Appointment: Apr 25, 1991
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 25, 1991
Termination of Mission: Left post May 10, 1994
 
William J. Crowe, Jr.
Appointment: May 13, 1994
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 2, 1994
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 20, 1997
 
Philip Lader
Appointment: Aug 1, 1997
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 22, 1997
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 28, 2001
 
William S. Farish
Appointment: Jul 12, 2001
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 1, 2001
Termination of Mission: Jun 11, 2004
 
Robert H. Tuttle
Appointment: Jul 9, 2005
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 19, 2005
Termination of Mission: Feb 6, 2009
 
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United Kingdom's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Sheinwald, Nigel

Nigel Sheinwald took up his position as British Ambassador to the United States in October 2007. Born in 1953, Sheinwald was educated at Harrow County Grammar School and Balliol College, Oxford.  

 
Sheinwald joined the British Diplomatic Service in 1976. He worked in London on the Japan Desk (1976-1977), in Moscow (1978-1979), back in London on Zimbabwe Desk (1979-1981), including the Lancaster House Conference, and as head of the Foreign Office’s Anglo-Soviet Section in 1981-1983.
 
His first posting to Washington was from 1983-1987 as first secretary (political) in the British Embassy. He was deputy head of the British Foreign Office’s Policy Planning Staff from 1987-1989, responsible for transatlantic relations and other issues. 
 
He began his career in European Union work as deputy head of the FCO’s European Union Department from 1989-1992, followed by a posting in the UK Representation in 1993-1995 as head of its Political and Institutional Section. From 1995-1998, he was the FCO press secretary and head of news department. 
 
Sheinwald was Europe Director in the FCO (1998-2000), UK Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the European Union in Brussels from 2000-2003, and Foreign Policy and Defense Adviser to the prime minister from 2003-2007.

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United Kingdom's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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Comments

Barry A Schlech 8 years ago
Sirs, I know international diplomacy is extremely difficult and it is almost impossible to satisfy all peoples with your actions.....BUT, this Lockerbie thing with the release of that horrible terrorist, Abdel Baset al-Megrahi, is a big blunder on Scotland's and UK's part. I know Europeans are against capital punishment and that's your right, but we in Texas do not take our criminals that lightly, as you know. The sight of the "compassionate release" of an animal that killed over ...

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U.S. Ambassador to United Kingdom

Barzun, Matthew
ambassador-image

What Matthew W. Barzun lacks in terms of diplomatic experience, or knowledge about Sweden, he makes up with having supported President Barack Obama’s election—to the tune of hundreds of thousands of dollars. The former CNET executive was one of Obama’s key bundlers, helping to funnel at least $500,000 towards the campaign. He was sworn in as U.S. ambassador to Sweden August 12, 2009.

 
Born on October 23, 1970, in New York City, Barzun grew up in Lincoln, Massachusetts, and attended the St. Paul’s School private academy in New Hampshire. He went to college at Harvard, during which he spent a summer internship working in the office of U.S. Senator John Kerry (D-Massachusetts). He received his bachelor’s degree in history and literature, magna cum laude, in 1993.
 
After graduating from Harvard, Barzun joined the fledgling CNET as the company’s fourth employee. He spent the next decade rising up through the growing Internet business. In 1995 he was promoted to Vice President of Software Services, where he led the acquisition of the Virtual Software Library, a library of downloadable software. He was in charge of launching CNET’s Download.com service, and he became senior vice president in 1998.
 
The following year he married his wife, Brooke Brown, and in 2000, he was promoted again, to chief strategy officer. He remained at CNET until 2004, when he left to start his own consulting company, Brickpath LLC, which advises Internet media companies.
 
That same year Barzun helped raise money for John Kerry’s 2004 presidential bid.
 
During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barzun joined Obama’s National Finance Committee. He raised more than half a million dollars for Obama, according to OpenSecrets.org, and he donated $4,600 of his own money. He also contributed $25,000 to Obama’s inauguration fund. Barzun and his family contributed more than $290,000 to political campaigns and groups during the 2008 election cycle.
 
Barzun has served on the boards of many non-profits with a focus on education (the Louisville Free Public Library Foundation, Louisville Public Media, and Teach Kentucky); public policy (the Kentucky Long Term Policy Research Center, and The Greater Louisville Project) and interfaith relations (Center for Interfaith Relations).
 
Barzun and his wife have three children.
 
Official Biography (State Department)

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