Namibia

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Overview

This southwestern African nation has only enjoyed independence since 1990, when it finally got out from under the grip of its neighbor, South Africa. For almost the entire 20th century, South Africa ruled over what was then known as South West Africa, first in accordance with a League of Nations mandate and then with the blessing of the United Nations following World War II. But during the 1950s and 1960s, an international chorus grew calling for Namibian independence—calls that went unheard by South African leaders. South Africa was unwilling to part with the mineral rich territory that also featured a deepwater Atlantic port. This intransigence on the part of officials in Pretoria, South Africa, gave rise to a rebel movement (SWAPO) in Namibia that battled South African forces during the 1970s and most of the 1980s. During this time, the United States publicly supported Namibian independence, while not pressuring its South African ally that was fighting Soviet- and Cuban backed movements in other parts of the region, including Angola (from which SWAPO operated secret bases). Eventually, South Africa agreed to allow free elections in Namibia that led to SWAPO officials taking over the new government. Since then, the US has provided substantial amounts of economic aid to Namibia, including millions to help fight AIDS, which has ravaged a large portion of the population in certain areas.

 
About 15% of the adult population is infected with HIV, and about half of the entire population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 a day.
 
Namibia’s economy is based on agriculture, herding, tourism, and mining of precious stones and metals.
 
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Approximately the size of Texas and Louisiana combined, Namibia’s terrain varies from coastal desert to semiarid mountains and plateau. This coastal southern African nation is bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

 

Population: 2.1 million
 
Religions: Christian 90.9%, Ethnoreligious 6.3%, Baha'i 0.5%, Muslim 0.4%, Jewish 0.1%.
 
Ethnic Groups: Ovambo 50%, Kavangos 95, Herero 7%, Damara 7%, mixed 6.5%, white 6%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%.
 
Languages: Kwanyama 35.7%, Ndonga 21.5%, Nama 8.8%, Afrikaans 6.7%, Herero 5.7%, Kwangali 3.7%, Diriku 1.5%, Kwambi 1.5%, English (official) 1.0%. There are 28 living languages in Namibia.
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History

The first people living in Namibia were hunters and gatherers who lived in the region as early as 2,000 years ago. Nama herders entered the region around the 5th century and left behind records in the form of cave paintings. The Herero people settled in the western and northern areas of Namibia around 1600, followed by the Ovambo in the 1800s.

 
Portuguese explorers Diogo Cam and Bartolomeu Dias were the first Europeans to visit the coast of Namibia, landing in the early 15th century. They were followed by other Portuguese and some Dutch expeditions, and in the late 18th century, Dutch and British captains laid claim to parts of the Namibian coast. But these claims were rejected by the British and Dutch governments.
 
Britain did annex the deepwater Walvis Bay in 1878. In 1884 the German government under Otto von Bismarck claimed control of South West Africa. A few years later violence erupted between indigenous people and the Europeans, mainly over control of land. In 1903 the Nama began a revolt, joined by the Herero in 1904. The Germans responded by slaughtering 30,000 Herero (out of a total population of about 70,000) and driving thousands of others into the Kalahari Desert, where they perished.
 
In 1908 diamonds were discovered near Lüderitz, prompting a large influx of Europeans into Namibia.
 
During World War I, South African forces moved into Namibia to stop the Germans from claiming the area. After the war concluded, South Africa was given control of South West Africa by the League of Nations (1920). From  1921–22 the Bondelzwarts, a small Nama group, revolted against South African rule, but they were crushed. After the founding of the United Nations in 1945, South Africa refused to surrender its mandate over South West Africa to the UN trusteeship system. In 1960, Ethiopia and Liberia filed proceedings with the International Court of Justice to force South Africa to comply with the UN regarding South West Africa. But the court ruled that neither Ethiopia nor Liberia had a legal right or interest to bring the case before the court. Soon thereafter, the South West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) began to operate a small-scale guerrilla war against South African forces.
 
The UN General Assembly in 1966 passed a resolution terminating South Africa’s mandate over South West Africa, and in 1968 it resolved that the country be known as Namibia. The International Court of Justice reaffirmed the General Assembly’s resolution, but the South African government ignored both the court’s ruling and the UN’s demand that Namibia gain its freedom. Instead, the Pretoria government proceeded with plans for establishing ten African homelands (Bantustans) in Namibia and to cement control of South Africa over its neighbor. This included implementing South Africa’s system of Apartheid in Namibia.
 
In 1977, the South African-backed government in Namibia adopted a new constitution that upheld apartheid policies, restricted SWAPO participation in politics, and sought to continue South African control over foreign affairs after independence. SWAPO escalated its guerilla warfare against South African units, gaining control of areas in the north. A UN resolution in 1978 called for a cease-fire and UN-monitored elections—demands that South Africa rejected.
 
Warfare continued until 1988 when an agreement was brokered by the United States. In an effort to bring peace and stability to the region, the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola was linked with the implementation of the UN plan in Namibia. South Africa begrudgingly agreed to go along. UN-supervised elections were held in 1989, in which SWAPO won a majority of the parliamentary seats, and party leader Sam Nujoma was elected president. A constitution was adopted in February 1990, and Namibia became independent on March 21.
 
The important deepwater port of Walvis Bay, which South Africa had long coveted, was turned over to Namibia in 1994. That same year SWAPO again won a majority in parliamentary elections and Nujoma remained in power. A land reform program began in 1996, but it wasn’t until 2004 that the government began expropriating white-owned farms to accelerate the process of resettlement. In the late 1990s Namibia supplied military aid to President Laurent Kabila of the Congo, who was fighting rebel forces seeking to overthrow him. By August 2001, all but 150 of these troops had returned home.
 
In December 1999 Namibia allowed Angolan troops to use its territory to pursue UNITA rebels that had been seeking the overthrow of the leftist government in Angola since the 1970s. The death of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi in February 2002 and the subsequent peace accord between UNITA and the Angolan government ended bouts of “hot pursuit” across the Namibian-Angolan border.
 
President Nujoma was reelected again in 1999, following a constitutional change that permitted him to run for a third term. Suggestions in 2004 that another amendment be made to permit a fourth term proved polarizing within both the ruling party and the nation. In April 2004, Nujoma announced that he would step down at the end of his third term.
 
In November 2004, Hifikepunye Pohamba, the SWAPO candidate and Nujoma’s handpicked successor, was elected president in a landslide. SWAPO also retained a two-thirds majority of the seats in the parliament.
 
An outbreak of polio in 2006 that resulted in more than 100 cases led to a mass immunization program throughout the country in June and July. Namibia has a significant AIDS problem, with more than 40% of the population infected in some northern areas.
 
In March 2009 Namibia, along with Angola and Zambia, was hit by major flooding., In the three nations, at least 131 people died and 445,000 were affected, with 300,000 people being displaced. A state of emergency was declared, and crops, houses, schools, and infrastructure were destroyed. A pre-existing cholera outbreak was heightened by increased sanitation problems, and 2,000 more people contracted malaria. Local food prices rose as a result of the flood, and crop production fell as well.
 
General elections were held in November of 2009, with President Hifikepunye Pohamba of the SWAPO party and former cabinet minister Hidipo Hamutenya of the Rally for Democracy and Progress running against each other. Phohamba won again with a 76.42% of the vote.
 
Namibia History (Wikipedia)
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History of U.S. Relations with Namibia

US relations with Namibia were overshadowed by the Cold War of the 1970s and 80s, when American policymakers supported the pro-Western government of South Africa in spite of its system of Apartheid. While US officials publicly called for South Africa to release its control of Namibia and allow its freedom, Washington was reluctant to push the issue while South African forces were fighting leftist elements in nearby Mozambique and Angola. The latter was the focus of considerable US aid to the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) against the Angolan government that was supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba. Between 1985 and 1992 alone, the US gave UNITA about $300 million in aid to fight a bloody civil war that was widely viewed as a proxy struggle between the US and the USSR. During that time, Namibia was often caught in the middle as UNITA guerrillas would seek refuge in Namibian territory.

As a territory of South Africa, Namibia became subject to US sanctions against South Africa in 1986, when Congress overrode a veto by President Ronald Reagan to protest Pretoria’s apartheid policies. The sanctions included prohibitions against civil aircraft traffic between the United States and South Africa and a ban on any new investment in South Africa except in black-owned companies, including bank loans to private businesses and most loans to the South African government. The sanctions prohibited the importing of military equipment from South Africa, or the export of material to that country and wide bans on importing other products from South Africa, including uranium, coal and textiles. Military cooperation also was banned under the 1986 law.
 
The sanctions were lifted by President George H. W. Bush on March 22, 1990, after Namibia became free of South Africa. President Bush promised to make the newly independent African nation a full trading partner of the United States. He also sent Secretary of State James Baker to the ceremonies in Windhoek, Namibia.
U.S. Ends Its Curbs Against Namibia (by Andrew Rosenthal, New York Times)
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Current U.S. Relations with Namibia

Namibia has been included in President George W. Bush’s International Mother and Child HIV Initiative and the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. The US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) bilateral presence in Namibia has been extended until 2010.

 
In addition to the embassy, the Centers for Disease Control, Peace Corps, and the Defense Department have offices in Windhoek. The Millennium Challenge Corporation has also established a presence in Windhoek following the July 28, 2008 signing of a compact agreement valued at approximately $304.5 million.
 
A total of 16,324 Americans visited Namibia in 2006, an increase of 11.2% from the 14,685 that visited in 2005. More Americans have visited Namibia every year since 2002, when 9,625 visits were made.
 
In 2006, 1,076 Namibians visited the US, a slight increase of 7.2% from the 1,004 that visited in 2005. Every year has seen a slight increase in the number of Namibians traveling to the US since 2002, when 883 visits were made.
 
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has had its bilateral presence in Namibia extended until 2010. The Centers for Disease Control, Peace Corps, and the Defense Department all have offices in Namibia as well.
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Where Does the Money Flow

For the United States, trade with Namibia is all about uranium. The southern African nation is rich in the radioactive material that is key to both military and civilian nuclear programs. From 2003 to 2007, US imports from Namibia have been steadily increasing and totaled $328.6 million in 2009. US imports of nuclear materials from Namibia are by far the US’s largest import totaling $275.6 million in 2009, a slight increase from the $245.1 million worth of nuclear fuel imported in 2008. The second highest imports are unrefined gem diamonds, which totaled $40.8 million in 2009.

 
Overall, US exports to Namibia fell from $280.3 million in 2008 to $202.3 million in 2009. The largest US export to Namibia is fuel oil. Exports dropped significantly from $101.1 million in 2008 to $44.1 million in 2009. Jewelry exports fell from $23.6 million in 2008 to $11.9 million in 2009. Vehicle accessories and parts saw a sharp decline in exports as well, from $17.8 million in 2008 to $486,000 in 2009. Excavation machinery, on the other hand, saw a spike in exports from $3.6 million in 2008 to $26.6 million in 2009.
 
The US requested a total of $102.9 million in aid for Namibia for 2011. Almost all of the aid has been requested for global health and child survival, in particular prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. For example, the U.S. has opened anti-retroviral and tuberculosis clinics where HIV-infected patients receive anti-retroviral treatments.
 
A small portion will also be going towards USAID ($1.95 million) and the International Military Education and Training ($150,000). The U.S. also plans to provide math, science and English language textbooks to all Namibian students in grades 5-12.
 
With its relatively small size, Namibia can lay claim to one of the greatest ratios of aid dollars per person, at approximately $49 per person in 2011.
 
Exports to Namibia     
 
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Controversies

Congress Pushes for pro-Israel Stance with Namibia

According to a Namibian media story, the US Congress sent a letter to the Namibian government urging it to reconsider its anti-Israeli voting pattern in the United Nations. The letter, dated November 21, 2008, pointed out that Namibia and the US have cast opposing votes on many issues of importance to the United States. A recent State Department report was cited in the news story revealing that the two countries voted similarly only 7.2% of the time. “We find it difficult to believe our countries have such significantly different views as the UN voting patterns demonstrate,” read the letter.

Congress was particularly concerned that of the 76 resolutions that Namibia voted on at the 2007 UN session, 18 were directed against Israel, while the US voted against each of them. The letter further noted that of the 12 resolutions Namibia supported, two were resolutions that the United States identified as especially harmful to the cause of peace. Namibia’s president questioned the authenticity of the letter and added that shortly after receiving it, he met the Israeli Ambassador at his office and they discussed the letter. The ambassador reportedly expressed satisfaction with the Namibian government. “Israel never complained and we have good diplomatic relations and although we do not agree on some issues, we still respect each other.”
 
Some organizations in Namibia have asked for the country to end relations with Israel, citing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The National Society for Human Rights of Namibia, and two of its political parties (SWANU and the Namibian Democratic Movement for Change) have specifically asked for this. SWANU president Usutuaije Maamberua asked for the Israeli government to stop hostilities against Palestinians and condemned the Gaza incursion.
 
In January 2008 a chartered plane going from Windhoek, Namibia, to Etosha National Park in Namibia crashed, killing 5 Israelis and 4 Namibians. The Israelis were on a break from their workoverseeing construction of diamond-cutting facilities in South Africa.
Controversy Brews Over UN Votes (by Kuvee Kangueehi, New Era)
 
Namibia Closes Down US Mercenary Operation
In 2007, Namibia deported two US citizens and shut down an American mercenary firm, Special Operations Consulting-Security Management (SOC-SMG). The firm was reportedly recruiting up to 4,000 Namibians with military experience to go and work in Iraq and Afghanistan as security guards. Namibian law criminalizes the involvement of Namibians in other countries’ wars without government approval. In addition, the Namibian government stated that “The involvement of the United States of America in Iraq has never been sanctioned or supported through any international agreement and can thus not be supported by Namibia.”
Namibia Deports US Security Employees (by Rodrick Mukumbira, Associated Press)
 
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Human Rights

The 2009 State Department Human Rights Report reported problems of excessive use of police force, poor conditions in prison and detention center conditions, arbitrary arrests, prolonged detention and excessive delays in trials. Other human rights violations include harassment and political intimidation, corruption, and societal abuse such as violence against women and children.

 
On March 6, 2009, 14 police officers accused of beating five men in 2005 were acquitted. One of the five men died from his injuries.
 
Other problems with police cited by the Report include accounts of bribery, possession of drugs, defrauding tourists, intoxication on the job, and impersonating immigration officials. In August 2009 more than 20 million Namibian dollars, valued at $2.7 million, in valuables that were confiscated from suspects to keep as evidence vanished from police safes.
 
The State Department reports that prisons and detention centers in Namibia were overcrowded, often lacked basic sanitary and nutritional provisions, and were poorly maintained. In 2006 the ombudsman conducted a review of police holding cells and noted poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding, insufficient food supplies, unsafe infrastructure, stagnant water, lack of access to medical care facilities and potable water, and insufficient bathroom and shower facilities. The ombudsman also noted that police stations were understaffed and that officers could not tend to detainees in addition to their regular police duties. Some detainees reportedly suffered abuse while in detention. Victims of prison abuse were able to pursue legal remedies.
 
There were reports of arbitrary arrest and detention. Philippus Petrus Fourie was held in detention without charge for 34 days on suspicion of being an illegal immigrant. An immigration official identified as “Quatro” arrested Fourie in the town of Tsumeb after he sought to apply for copies of his identity documents stolen from his car in 2006. Quatro ignored a court order by the local magistrate to release Fourie and instead ordered him to leave the country within 48 hours. Fourie successfully contested his deportation in Windhoek and received a copy of his birth certificate. No actions were taken against the immigration official.
 
On occasion authorities held detainees incommunicado. Frieda Kishii, legal representative for kidnapping suspect Reverend Gerhard Kgobetsi, was refused access. Kishii sought the intervention of senior police officials and eventually gained access to her client. Kgobetsi’s family also was denied access until his court appearance and subsequent release on bail.
 
While the constitution allows for freedom of speech and of the press, the government has been known to limit press freedom in the past. The 2009 Communications Act established the Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN) to regulate forms of communication such as the media, though it wasn’t specified how exactly this was to be done. CRAN is supposed to promote competition in the telecommunications industry.
 
On July 3, 2009 the African Union, which Namibia is a member of, agreed to withhold cooperation from the International Criminal Court because of the arrest of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir. This decision can potentially block justice for victims of the Sudanese genocide, and goes against the AU’s own constitution.
 
Procedural problems continued to dominate the high treason trials of detainees arrested in connection with the 1999 attacks on government institutions at Katima Mulilo. Two of the 12 suspected secessionists accused in the second treason trial, Vincent Siliye and Vincent Sinasi, were acquitted on a technicality after the state failed to present evidence tying them to the attempted secession of the Caprivi region from Namibia in 1999. On July 31, 2007, acting High Court Judge John Manyarara convicted the 10 others accused in the second Caprivi secession trial of high treason. Human rights organizations generally criticized the trial as unfair because government lawyers for the accused were unable or unwilling to argue, per the defendants' wishes, that the court did not have jurisdiction over the accused because the Caprivi region is not part of Namibia.
 
High‑level government officials sometimes verbally abused journalists who criticized the government, former president Nujoma, or the ruling party, and threatened to close down elements of the independent media. Journalists working for government‑affiliated media practiced self‑censorship, although reporters for independent newspapers continued to criticize the government openly.
 
The government owned and operated the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) Radio and Television. The most widely heard and influential media in the country were NBC television and nine radio services, which broadcast in English and indigenous languages. During the year there were reports of government influence on NBC operations and editorial content as well as self‑censorship by the staff. There were 11 private radio stations and two private television networks, One Africa TV and MultiChoice Direct Satellite TV, and a private cable and satellite television service that broadcast international news and entertainment programs. The ruling SWAPO party owned 51% of this direct satellite television service.
 
On April 25, 2007, the minister of information and broadcasting announced that NBC would cancel all its radio call‑in talk shows and implement new call‑in radio formats with predetermined topics. Several of the call-in comments had criticized former president Nujoma. NBC followed the restrictions for approximately one week before responding to public pressure to reinstate the shows in their original formats.
 
Child abuse was a serious problem, and authorities vigorously prosecuted crimes against children, particularly rape and incest. The law protects children under 18 years of age by criminalizing the actions of the client or pimp in cases of sexual exploitation, child pornography, and child prostitution. The age of sexual consent is 16 years.
 
Child prostitution existed, primarily as a means of survival among HIV/AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children. The growing number of HIV/AIDS orphans increased the vulnerability of children to sexual abuse and exploitation.
 
The San, the country’s earliest known inhabitants, historically have been exploited by other ethnic groups. By law all indigenous groups participate equally in decisions affecting their lands, cultures, traditions, and allocations of natural resources. But the San and other indigenous citizens have been unable to exercise these rights fully as a result of minimal access to education, limited economic opportunities, and their relative isolation. The government continued promoting special projects for the advancement of the San community. Despite these measures, many San children did not attend school.
A Namibian human rights group filed a request in July 2007 with the International Criminal Court to investigate Namibia’s founding president over the disappearance of thousands of people. The National Society for Human Rights (NSHR) accused Sam Nujoma of gross human rights violations as well as responsibility for the disappearance of about 4,200 people during his country’s struggle for independence.
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors

The US Liaison Office in Windhoek opened Feb. 24, 1984, with William H. Twaddell as director and closed Feb. 15, 1985. During this time the following officers served as director: Dennis Whyte Keogh (March–April 1984), Howard Jeter (April–May 1984), and William L. Jacobsen, Jr. (May–February 1985). It reopened Jun 1, 1989, with Roger A. McGuire as director. McGuire became Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when the Liaison Office was elevated to embassy status on Mar 21, 1990.

 
Genta Hawkins Holmes
Appointment: Aug 6, 1990
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 30, 1990
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 6, 1992
 
Marshall Fletcher McCallie
Appointment: May 25, 1993
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 7, 1993
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 12, 1996
 
George F. Ward
Appointment: Jun 11, 1996
Presentation of Credentials: Aug. 21, 1996
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 14, 1999
 
Jeffrey A. Bader
Appointment: Aug 9, 1999
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 13, 1999
Termination of Mission: Left post Apr 6, 2001
 
Kevin Joseph McGuire
Appointment: Oct 1, 2001
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 21, 2001
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 16, 2004
 
Joyce A. Barr
Appointment: Jul 2, 2004
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 27, 2004
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 31, 2007
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Namibia's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Andjaba, Martin

Martin Andjaba became ambassador of Namibia to the United States in September 2010.

 
Born on December 17, 1957, in Ontokolo, Northern Namibia, Andjaba obtained in 1981 a Diploma in Public Administration and Management at the United Nations Institute for Namibia, focusing on historical, political and cultural studies. The following year he attended a one-month course on materials management at the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
From 1981 to 1983, Andjaba served as a general service officer at the UN Institute for Namibia, with responsibilities for protocol, transport, procurement, material management, clearing and forwarding.
 
In 1984, he relocated to Luanda, Angola, to become senior coordinator at the Department of Foreign Affairs of SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), the party that sought Namibian independence from South Africa. He held this post until 1989, during which time he also served as secretary of the Africa Group of Ambassadors in Luanda (1986-1989).
 
In 1989, Andjaba was chief of protocol for SWAPO’s Directorate of Elections in Windhoek. That same year, he obtained a certificate in diplomacy at the Foreign Service Academy in Lagos, Nigeria. He attended the First Diplomatic Course at the University of Namibia in 1990.
 
After Namibia declared independence in 1990, Andjaba served for the next six years as the government’s chief of protocol.
 
In September 1996, he became Namibia’s permanent representative to the United Nations. During the period that Namibia was a member of the UN Security Council (1999-2000), Andjaba twice served as President of the Security Council—in August 1999 and October 2000. He was involved in one particularly dramatic moment involving the United States. On January 20, 2000, Sen. Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina) addressed the Security Council and boasted that the U.S. had done more to promote freedom in the world than the UN. “In the 1980s, we called this policy the Reagan Doctrine,” said Helms, adding that Ronald Reagan’s policies were responsible for “the dramatic expansion of freedom in the last decade of the 20th century.”
 
Andjaba replied that his own country’s independence had to be postponed for the eight years of Reagan’s presidency because the Reagan Doctrine “went hand-in-hand with the apartheid regime in South Africa. Legitimate and genuine national liberation movements were called other names—terrorists—and those that caused death and destruction in Africa were called liberators.”
 
Andjaba remained at the United Nations until September 2006. After that he served as Namibia’s “acting foreign affairs permanent secretary ambassador.”
 
Andjaba is married and has four children.
 
Official Biography (United Nations)

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Namibia's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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U.S. Ambassador to Namibia

Daughton, Thomas
ambassador-image

The southwest African nation of Namibia will soon have a new ambassador from the U.S. Nominated July 30, career Foreign Service Officer Thomas F. Daughton had been senior advisor for Security Negotiations and Agreements in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs of the State Department since July 2011. If confirmed by the Senate as expected, Daughton would succeed Wanda Nesbitt, who has served in Windhoek since November 2010.

 

Born in Arizona circa 1961, Daughton earned a B.A. at Amherst College in 1983 and a J.D. at the University of Virginia Law School in 1989. After graduating law school, Daughton was an associate at the New York office of the Chicago-based law firm Sidley & Austin.

 

Joining the Foreign Service in 1989, Daughton served early career foreign postings as vice consul at the embassy in Kingston, Jamaica, from 1989 to 1991, and as political officer at the embassy in Rabat, Morocco, from 1991 to 1993. 

 

Returning to State Department Headquarters in Washington, Daughton served as a staff assistant in the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs from 1993 to 1994 and as desk officer for the Philippines in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs from 1994 to 1996.

 

Daughton was political and administrative Officer at the Consulate General in Thessaloniki, Greece, from 1997 to 2000, and served as deputy chief of mission and chargé d’affaires ad interim (2001-2002) in Libreville, Gabon, from 2000 to 2003.

 

After serving as counselor for political affairs at the embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 2003 to 2006, Daughton served as deputy chief of mission at the embassy in Algiers, Algeria, from 2006 to 2009, where he got involved in a minor kerfuffle over a travel book about author Michael Mewshaw’s 4,000-mile trek across North Africa, including a visit to the U.S. embassy and a chat with Daughton. According to the book, Daughton was unusually—and undiplomatically—frank with Mewshaw, stating for example that Algeria’s “government is sclerotic and self-serving.” The State Department disavowed the quotes, arguing that they were inaccurate and that the conversation was intended to be off the record—which Mewshaw denies.

 

From 2009 to 2011, Daughton served as deputy chief of mission at the embassy in Beirut, Lebanon.

 

Daughton speaks French and Greek. He is married to Melinda Burrell.

-Matt Bewig

 

To Learn More:

Between Terror and Tourism: An Overland Journey Across North Africa (by Michael Mewshaw)

U.S. Takes Issue with Author’s Account of Visit at Embassy in Algiers (by Steven Levingston, Washington Post

Statement Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (pdf)

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Namibia

Mathieu, Gail
ambassador-image

A native of New Jersey, Gail Dennise Mathieu was sworn in as the US Ambassador to Namibia on November 15, 2007.

 
Mathieu received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Antioch College and a Juris Doctor degree from Rutgers University’s School of Law in Newark, NJ. She also attended The Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. She speaks French and Spanish.
 
Mathieu began her professional career as an assistant prosecutor for the city of Newark, New Jersey. She is a member of the New Jersey and District of Columbia Bars.
 
A career member of the Senior Foreign Service, Mathieu began her career with key positions in Paris, Geneva, Jeddah, Port of Spain and Santo Domingo. She also served as the deputy director of the Office of Pacific Island Affairs from 1995-1997, deputy director of the Office of West African Affairs from 1997-1999, and deputy chief of mission in Accra, Ghana from 1999-2002.
 
She then served as US Ambassador to Niger from November 2002–September 2005, followed director of the Office of Technical Specialized Agencies in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.
 
Mathieu is married and has one son.
 
 
 

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News
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Overview

This southwestern African nation has only enjoyed independence since 1990, when it finally got out from under the grip of its neighbor, South Africa. For almost the entire 20th century, South Africa ruled over what was then known as South West Africa, first in accordance with a League of Nations mandate and then with the blessing of the United Nations following World War II. But during the 1950s and 1960s, an international chorus grew calling for Namibian independence—calls that went unheard by South African leaders. South Africa was unwilling to part with the mineral rich territory that also featured a deepwater Atlantic port. This intransigence on the part of officials in Pretoria, South Africa, gave rise to a rebel movement (SWAPO) in Namibia that battled South African forces during the 1970s and most of the 1980s. During this time, the United States publicly supported Namibian independence, while not pressuring its South African ally that was fighting Soviet- and Cuban backed movements in other parts of the region, including Angola (from which SWAPO operated secret bases). Eventually, South Africa agreed to allow free elections in Namibia that led to SWAPO officials taking over the new government. Since then, the US has provided substantial amounts of economic aid to Namibia, including millions to help fight AIDS, which has ravaged a large portion of the population in certain areas.

 
About 15% of the adult population is infected with HIV, and about half of the entire population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 a day.
 
Namibia’s economy is based on agriculture, herding, tourism, and mining of precious stones and metals.
 
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Approximately the size of Texas and Louisiana combined, Namibia’s terrain varies from coastal desert to semiarid mountains and plateau. This coastal southern African nation is bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

 

Population: 2.1 million
 
Religions: Christian 90.9%, Ethnoreligious 6.3%, Baha'i 0.5%, Muslim 0.4%, Jewish 0.1%.
 
Ethnic Groups: Ovambo 50%, Kavangos 95, Herero 7%, Damara 7%, mixed 6.5%, white 6%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%.
 
Languages: Kwanyama 35.7%, Ndonga 21.5%, Nama 8.8%, Afrikaans 6.7%, Herero 5.7%, Kwangali 3.7%, Diriku 1.5%, Kwambi 1.5%, English (official) 1.0%. There are 28 living languages in Namibia.
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History

The first people living in Namibia were hunters and gatherers who lived in the region as early as 2,000 years ago. Nama herders entered the region around the 5th century and left behind records in the form of cave paintings. The Herero people settled in the western and northern areas of Namibia around 1600, followed by the Ovambo in the 1800s.

 
Portuguese explorers Diogo Cam and Bartolomeu Dias were the first Europeans to visit the coast of Namibia, landing in the early 15th century. They were followed by other Portuguese and some Dutch expeditions, and in the late 18th century, Dutch and British captains laid claim to parts of the Namibian coast. But these claims were rejected by the British and Dutch governments.
 
Britain did annex the deepwater Walvis Bay in 1878. In 1884 the German government under Otto von Bismarck claimed control of South West Africa. A few years later violence erupted between indigenous people and the Europeans, mainly over control of land. In 1903 the Nama began a revolt, joined by the Herero in 1904. The Germans responded by slaughtering 30,000 Herero (out of a total population of about 70,000) and driving thousands of others into the Kalahari Desert, where they perished.
 
In 1908 diamonds were discovered near Lüderitz, prompting a large influx of Europeans into Namibia.
 
During World War I, South African forces moved into Namibia to stop the Germans from claiming the area. After the war concluded, South Africa was given control of South West Africa by the League of Nations (1920). From  1921–22 the Bondelzwarts, a small Nama group, revolted against South African rule, but they were crushed. After the founding of the United Nations in 1945, South Africa refused to surrender its mandate over South West Africa to the UN trusteeship system. In 1960, Ethiopia and Liberia filed proceedings with the International Court of Justice to force South Africa to comply with the UN regarding South West Africa. But the court ruled that neither Ethiopia nor Liberia had a legal right or interest to bring the case before the court. Soon thereafter, the South West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) began to operate a small-scale guerrilla war against South African forces.
 
The UN General Assembly in 1966 passed a resolution terminating South Africa’s mandate over South West Africa, and in 1968 it resolved that the country be known as Namibia. The International Court of Justice reaffirmed the General Assembly’s resolution, but the South African government ignored both the court’s ruling and the UN’s demand that Namibia gain its freedom. Instead, the Pretoria government proceeded with plans for establishing ten African homelands (Bantustans) in Namibia and to cement control of South Africa over its neighbor. This included implementing South Africa’s system of Apartheid in Namibia.
 
In 1977, the South African-backed government in Namibia adopted a new constitution that upheld apartheid policies, restricted SWAPO participation in politics, and sought to continue South African control over foreign affairs after independence. SWAPO escalated its guerilla warfare against South African units, gaining control of areas in the north. A UN resolution in 1978 called for a cease-fire and UN-monitored elections—demands that South Africa rejected.
 
Warfare continued until 1988 when an agreement was brokered by the United States. In an effort to bring peace and stability to the region, the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola was linked with the implementation of the UN plan in Namibia. South Africa begrudgingly agreed to go along. UN-supervised elections were held in 1989, in which SWAPO won a majority of the parliamentary seats, and party leader Sam Nujoma was elected president. A constitution was adopted in February 1990, and Namibia became independent on March 21.
 
The important deepwater port of Walvis Bay, which South Africa had long coveted, was turned over to Namibia in 1994. That same year SWAPO again won a majority in parliamentary elections and Nujoma remained in power. A land reform program began in 1996, but it wasn’t until 2004 that the government began expropriating white-owned farms to accelerate the process of resettlement. In the late 1990s Namibia supplied military aid to President Laurent Kabila of the Congo, who was fighting rebel forces seeking to overthrow him. By August 2001, all but 150 of these troops had returned home.
 
In December 1999 Namibia allowed Angolan troops to use its territory to pursue UNITA rebels that had been seeking the overthrow of the leftist government in Angola since the 1970s. The death of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi in February 2002 and the subsequent peace accord between UNITA and the Angolan government ended bouts of “hot pursuit” across the Namibian-Angolan border.
 
President Nujoma was reelected again in 1999, following a constitutional change that permitted him to run for a third term. Suggestions in 2004 that another amendment be made to permit a fourth term proved polarizing within both the ruling party and the nation. In April 2004, Nujoma announced that he would step down at the end of his third term.
 
In November 2004, Hifikepunye Pohamba, the SWAPO candidate and Nujoma’s handpicked successor, was elected president in a landslide. SWAPO also retained a two-thirds majority of the seats in the parliament.
 
An outbreak of polio in 2006 that resulted in more than 100 cases led to a mass immunization program throughout the country in June and July. Namibia has a significant AIDS problem, with more than 40% of the population infected in some northern areas.
 
In March 2009 Namibia, along with Angola and Zambia, was hit by major flooding., In the three nations, at least 131 people died and 445,000 were affected, with 300,000 people being displaced. A state of emergency was declared, and crops, houses, schools, and infrastructure were destroyed. A pre-existing cholera outbreak was heightened by increased sanitation problems, and 2,000 more people contracted malaria. Local food prices rose as a result of the flood, and crop production fell as well.
 
General elections were held in November of 2009, with President Hifikepunye Pohamba of the SWAPO party and former cabinet minister Hidipo Hamutenya of the Rally for Democracy and Progress running against each other. Phohamba won again with a 76.42% of the vote.
 
Namibia History (Wikipedia)
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History of U.S. Relations with Namibia

US relations with Namibia were overshadowed by the Cold War of the 1970s and 80s, when American policymakers supported the pro-Western government of South Africa in spite of its system of Apartheid. While US officials publicly called for South Africa to release its control of Namibia and allow its freedom, Washington was reluctant to push the issue while South African forces were fighting leftist elements in nearby Mozambique and Angola. The latter was the focus of considerable US aid to the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) against the Angolan government that was supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba. Between 1985 and 1992 alone, the US gave UNITA about $300 million in aid to fight a bloody civil war that was widely viewed as a proxy struggle between the US and the USSR. During that time, Namibia was often caught in the middle as UNITA guerrillas would seek refuge in Namibian territory.

As a territory of South Africa, Namibia became subject to US sanctions against South Africa in 1986, when Congress overrode a veto by President Ronald Reagan to protest Pretoria’s apartheid policies. The sanctions included prohibitions against civil aircraft traffic between the United States and South Africa and a ban on any new investment in South Africa except in black-owned companies, including bank loans to private businesses and most loans to the South African government. The sanctions prohibited the importing of military equipment from South Africa, or the export of material to that country and wide bans on importing other products from South Africa, including uranium, coal and textiles. Military cooperation also was banned under the 1986 law.
 
The sanctions were lifted by President George H. W. Bush on March 22, 1990, after Namibia became free of South Africa. President Bush promised to make the newly independent African nation a full trading partner of the United States. He also sent Secretary of State James Baker to the ceremonies in Windhoek, Namibia.
U.S. Ends Its Curbs Against Namibia (by Andrew Rosenthal, New York Times)
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Current U.S. Relations with Namibia

Namibia has been included in President George W. Bush’s International Mother and Child HIV Initiative and the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. The US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) bilateral presence in Namibia has been extended until 2010.

 
In addition to the embassy, the Centers for Disease Control, Peace Corps, and the Defense Department have offices in Windhoek. The Millennium Challenge Corporation has also established a presence in Windhoek following the July 28, 2008 signing of a compact agreement valued at approximately $304.5 million.
 
A total of 16,324 Americans visited Namibia in 2006, an increase of 11.2% from the 14,685 that visited in 2005. More Americans have visited Namibia every year since 2002, when 9,625 visits were made.
 
In 2006, 1,076 Namibians visited the US, a slight increase of 7.2% from the 1,004 that visited in 2005. Every year has seen a slight increase in the number of Namibians traveling to the US since 2002, when 883 visits were made.
 
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has had its bilateral presence in Namibia extended until 2010. The Centers for Disease Control, Peace Corps, and the Defense Department all have offices in Namibia as well.
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Where Does the Money Flow

For the United States, trade with Namibia is all about uranium. The southern African nation is rich in the radioactive material that is key to both military and civilian nuclear programs. From 2003 to 2007, US imports from Namibia have been steadily increasing and totaled $328.6 million in 2009. US imports of nuclear materials from Namibia are by far the US’s largest import totaling $275.6 million in 2009, a slight increase from the $245.1 million worth of nuclear fuel imported in 2008. The second highest imports are unrefined gem diamonds, which totaled $40.8 million in 2009.

 
Overall, US exports to Namibia fell from $280.3 million in 2008 to $202.3 million in 2009. The largest US export to Namibia is fuel oil. Exports dropped significantly from $101.1 million in 2008 to $44.1 million in 2009. Jewelry exports fell from $23.6 million in 2008 to $11.9 million in 2009. Vehicle accessories and parts saw a sharp decline in exports as well, from $17.8 million in 2008 to $486,000 in 2009. Excavation machinery, on the other hand, saw a spike in exports from $3.6 million in 2008 to $26.6 million in 2009.
 
The US requested a total of $102.9 million in aid for Namibia for 2011. Almost all of the aid has been requested for global health and child survival, in particular prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. For example, the U.S. has opened anti-retroviral and tuberculosis clinics where HIV-infected patients receive anti-retroviral treatments.
 
A small portion will also be going towards USAID ($1.95 million) and the International Military Education and Training ($150,000). The U.S. also plans to provide math, science and English language textbooks to all Namibian students in grades 5-12.
 
With its relatively small size, Namibia can lay claim to one of the greatest ratios of aid dollars per person, at approximately $49 per person in 2011.
 
Exports to Namibia     
 
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Controversies

Congress Pushes for pro-Israel Stance with Namibia

According to a Namibian media story, the US Congress sent a letter to the Namibian government urging it to reconsider its anti-Israeli voting pattern in the United Nations. The letter, dated November 21, 2008, pointed out that Namibia and the US have cast opposing votes on many issues of importance to the United States. A recent State Department report was cited in the news story revealing that the two countries voted similarly only 7.2% of the time. “We find it difficult to believe our countries have such significantly different views as the UN voting patterns demonstrate,” read the letter.

Congress was particularly concerned that of the 76 resolutions that Namibia voted on at the 2007 UN session, 18 were directed against Israel, while the US voted against each of them. The letter further noted that of the 12 resolutions Namibia supported, two were resolutions that the United States identified as especially harmful to the cause of peace. Namibia’s president questioned the authenticity of the letter and added that shortly after receiving it, he met the Israeli Ambassador at his office and they discussed the letter. The ambassador reportedly expressed satisfaction with the Namibian government. “Israel never complained and we have good diplomatic relations and although we do not agree on some issues, we still respect each other.”
 
Some organizations in Namibia have asked for the country to end relations with Israel, citing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The National Society for Human Rights of Namibia, and two of its political parties (SWANU and the Namibian Democratic Movement for Change) have specifically asked for this. SWANU president Usutuaije Maamberua asked for the Israeli government to stop hostilities against Palestinians and condemned the Gaza incursion.
 
In January 2008 a chartered plane going from Windhoek, Namibia, to Etosha National Park in Namibia crashed, killing 5 Israelis and 4 Namibians. The Israelis were on a break from their workoverseeing construction of diamond-cutting facilities in South Africa.
Controversy Brews Over UN Votes (by Kuvee Kangueehi, New Era)
 
Namibia Closes Down US Mercenary Operation
In 2007, Namibia deported two US citizens and shut down an American mercenary firm, Special Operations Consulting-Security Management (SOC-SMG). The firm was reportedly recruiting up to 4,000 Namibians with military experience to go and work in Iraq and Afghanistan as security guards. Namibian law criminalizes the involvement of Namibians in other countries’ wars without government approval. In addition, the Namibian government stated that “The involvement of the United States of America in Iraq has never been sanctioned or supported through any international agreement and can thus not be supported by Namibia.”
Namibia Deports US Security Employees (by Rodrick Mukumbira, Associated Press)
 
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Human Rights

The 2009 State Department Human Rights Report reported problems of excessive use of police force, poor conditions in prison and detention center conditions, arbitrary arrests, prolonged detention and excessive delays in trials. Other human rights violations include harassment and political intimidation, corruption, and societal abuse such as violence against women and children.

 
On March 6, 2009, 14 police officers accused of beating five men in 2005 were acquitted. One of the five men died from his injuries.
 
Other problems with police cited by the Report include accounts of bribery, possession of drugs, defrauding tourists, intoxication on the job, and impersonating immigration officials. In August 2009 more than 20 million Namibian dollars, valued at $2.7 million, in valuables that were confiscated from suspects to keep as evidence vanished from police safes.
 
The State Department reports that prisons and detention centers in Namibia were overcrowded, often lacked basic sanitary and nutritional provisions, and were poorly maintained. In 2006 the ombudsman conducted a review of police holding cells and noted poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding, insufficient food supplies, unsafe infrastructure, stagnant water, lack of access to medical care facilities and potable water, and insufficient bathroom and shower facilities. The ombudsman also noted that police stations were understaffed and that officers could not tend to detainees in addition to their regular police duties. Some detainees reportedly suffered abuse while in detention. Victims of prison abuse were able to pursue legal remedies.
 
There were reports of arbitrary arrest and detention. Philippus Petrus Fourie was held in detention without charge for 34 days on suspicion of being an illegal immigrant. An immigration official identified as “Quatro” arrested Fourie in the town of Tsumeb after he sought to apply for copies of his identity documents stolen from his car in 2006. Quatro ignored a court order by the local magistrate to release Fourie and instead ordered him to leave the country within 48 hours. Fourie successfully contested his deportation in Windhoek and received a copy of his birth certificate. No actions were taken against the immigration official.
 
On occasion authorities held detainees incommunicado. Frieda Kishii, legal representative for kidnapping suspect Reverend Gerhard Kgobetsi, was refused access. Kishii sought the intervention of senior police officials and eventually gained access to her client. Kgobetsi’s family also was denied access until his court appearance and subsequent release on bail.
 
While the constitution allows for freedom of speech and of the press, the government has been known to limit press freedom in the past. The 2009 Communications Act established the Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN) to regulate forms of communication such as the media, though it wasn’t specified how exactly this was to be done. CRAN is supposed to promote competition in the telecommunications industry.
 
On July 3, 2009 the African Union, which Namibia is a member of, agreed to withhold cooperation from the International Criminal Court because of the arrest of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir. This decision can potentially block justice for victims of the Sudanese genocide, and goes against the AU’s own constitution.
 
Procedural problems continued to dominate the high treason trials of detainees arrested in connection with the 1999 attacks on government institutions at Katima Mulilo. Two of the 12 suspected secessionists accused in the second treason trial, Vincent Siliye and Vincent Sinasi, were acquitted on a technicality after the state failed to present evidence tying them to the attempted secession of the Caprivi region from Namibia in 1999. On July 31, 2007, acting High Court Judge John Manyarara convicted the 10 others accused in the second Caprivi secession trial of high treason. Human rights organizations generally criticized the trial as unfair because government lawyers for the accused were unable or unwilling to argue, per the defendants' wishes, that the court did not have jurisdiction over the accused because the Caprivi region is not part of Namibia.
 
High‑level government officials sometimes verbally abused journalists who criticized the government, former president Nujoma, or the ruling party, and threatened to close down elements of the independent media. Journalists working for government‑affiliated media practiced self‑censorship, although reporters for independent newspapers continued to criticize the government openly.
 
The government owned and operated the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) Radio and Television. The most widely heard and influential media in the country were NBC television and nine radio services, which broadcast in English and indigenous languages. During the year there were reports of government influence on NBC operations and editorial content as well as self‑censorship by the staff. There were 11 private radio stations and two private television networks, One Africa TV and MultiChoice Direct Satellite TV, and a private cable and satellite television service that broadcast international news and entertainment programs. The ruling SWAPO party owned 51% of this direct satellite television service.
 
On April 25, 2007, the minister of information and broadcasting announced that NBC would cancel all its radio call‑in talk shows and implement new call‑in radio formats with predetermined topics. Several of the call-in comments had criticized former president Nujoma. NBC followed the restrictions for approximately one week before responding to public pressure to reinstate the shows in their original formats.
 
Child abuse was a serious problem, and authorities vigorously prosecuted crimes against children, particularly rape and incest. The law protects children under 18 years of age by criminalizing the actions of the client or pimp in cases of sexual exploitation, child pornography, and child prostitution. The age of sexual consent is 16 years.
 
Child prostitution existed, primarily as a means of survival among HIV/AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children. The growing number of HIV/AIDS orphans increased the vulnerability of children to sexual abuse and exploitation.
 
The San, the country’s earliest known inhabitants, historically have been exploited by other ethnic groups. By law all indigenous groups participate equally in decisions affecting their lands, cultures, traditions, and allocations of natural resources. But the San and other indigenous citizens have been unable to exercise these rights fully as a result of minimal access to education, limited economic opportunities, and their relative isolation. The government continued promoting special projects for the advancement of the San community. Despite these measures, many San children did not attend school.
A Namibian human rights group filed a request in July 2007 with the International Criminal Court to investigate Namibia’s founding president over the disappearance of thousands of people. The National Society for Human Rights (NSHR) accused Sam Nujoma of gross human rights violations as well as responsibility for the disappearance of about 4,200 people during his country’s struggle for independence.
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors

The US Liaison Office in Windhoek opened Feb. 24, 1984, with William H. Twaddell as director and closed Feb. 15, 1985. During this time the following officers served as director: Dennis Whyte Keogh (March–April 1984), Howard Jeter (April–May 1984), and William L. Jacobsen, Jr. (May–February 1985). It reopened Jun 1, 1989, with Roger A. McGuire as director. McGuire became Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when the Liaison Office was elevated to embassy status on Mar 21, 1990.

 
Genta Hawkins Holmes
Appointment: Aug 6, 1990
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 30, 1990
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 6, 1992
 
Marshall Fletcher McCallie
Appointment: May 25, 1993
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 7, 1993
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 12, 1996
 
George F. Ward
Appointment: Jun 11, 1996
Presentation of Credentials: Aug. 21, 1996
Termination of Mission: Left post Mar 14, 1999
 
Jeffrey A. Bader
Appointment: Aug 9, 1999
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 13, 1999
Termination of Mission: Left post Apr 6, 2001
 
Kevin Joseph McGuire
Appointment: Oct 1, 2001
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 21, 2001
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 16, 2004
 
Joyce A. Barr
Appointment: Jul 2, 2004
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 27, 2004
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 31, 2007
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Namibia's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Andjaba, Martin

Martin Andjaba became ambassador of Namibia to the United States in September 2010.

 
Born on December 17, 1957, in Ontokolo, Northern Namibia, Andjaba obtained in 1981 a Diploma in Public Administration and Management at the United Nations Institute for Namibia, focusing on historical, political and cultural studies. The following year he attended a one-month course on materials management at the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
From 1981 to 1983, Andjaba served as a general service officer at the UN Institute for Namibia, with responsibilities for protocol, transport, procurement, material management, clearing and forwarding.
 
In 1984, he relocated to Luanda, Angola, to become senior coordinator at the Department of Foreign Affairs of SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), the party that sought Namibian independence from South Africa. He held this post until 1989, during which time he also served as secretary of the Africa Group of Ambassadors in Luanda (1986-1989).
 
In 1989, Andjaba was chief of protocol for SWAPO’s Directorate of Elections in Windhoek. That same year, he obtained a certificate in diplomacy at the Foreign Service Academy in Lagos, Nigeria. He attended the First Diplomatic Course at the University of Namibia in 1990.
 
After Namibia declared independence in 1990, Andjaba served for the next six years as the government’s chief of protocol.
 
In September 1996, he became Namibia’s permanent representative to the United Nations. During the period that Namibia was a member of the UN Security Council (1999-2000), Andjaba twice served as President of the Security Council—in August 1999 and October 2000. He was involved in one particularly dramatic moment involving the United States. On January 20, 2000, Sen. Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina) addressed the Security Council and boasted that the U.S. had done more to promote freedom in the world than the UN. “In the 1980s, we called this policy the Reagan Doctrine,” said Helms, adding that Ronald Reagan’s policies were responsible for “the dramatic expansion of freedom in the last decade of the 20th century.”
 
Andjaba replied that his own country’s independence had to be postponed for the eight years of Reagan’s presidency because the Reagan Doctrine “went hand-in-hand with the apartheid regime in South Africa. Legitimate and genuine national liberation movements were called other names—terrorists—and those that caused death and destruction in Africa were called liberators.”
 
Andjaba remained at the United Nations until September 2006. After that he served as Namibia’s “acting foreign affairs permanent secretary ambassador.”
 
Andjaba is married and has four children.
 
Official Biography (United Nations)

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Namibia's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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U.S. Ambassador to Namibia

Daughton, Thomas
ambassador-image

The southwest African nation of Namibia will soon have a new ambassador from the U.S. Nominated July 30, career Foreign Service Officer Thomas F. Daughton had been senior advisor for Security Negotiations and Agreements in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs of the State Department since July 2011. If confirmed by the Senate as expected, Daughton would succeed Wanda Nesbitt, who has served in Windhoek since November 2010.

 

Born in Arizona circa 1961, Daughton earned a B.A. at Amherst College in 1983 and a J.D. at the University of Virginia Law School in 1989. After graduating law school, Daughton was an associate at the New York office of the Chicago-based law firm Sidley & Austin.

 

Joining the Foreign Service in 1989, Daughton served early career foreign postings as vice consul at the embassy in Kingston, Jamaica, from 1989 to 1991, and as political officer at the embassy in Rabat, Morocco, from 1991 to 1993. 

 

Returning to State Department Headquarters in Washington, Daughton served as a staff assistant in the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs from 1993 to 1994 and as desk officer for the Philippines in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs from 1994 to 1996.

 

Daughton was political and administrative Officer at the Consulate General in Thessaloniki, Greece, from 1997 to 2000, and served as deputy chief of mission and chargé d’affaires ad interim (2001-2002) in Libreville, Gabon, from 2000 to 2003.

 

After serving as counselor for political affairs at the embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 2003 to 2006, Daughton served as deputy chief of mission at the embassy in Algiers, Algeria, from 2006 to 2009, where he got involved in a minor kerfuffle over a travel book about author Michael Mewshaw’s 4,000-mile trek across North Africa, including a visit to the U.S. embassy and a chat with Daughton. According to the book, Daughton was unusually—and undiplomatically—frank with Mewshaw, stating for example that Algeria’s “government is sclerotic and self-serving.” The State Department disavowed the quotes, arguing that they were inaccurate and that the conversation was intended to be off the record—which Mewshaw denies.

 

From 2009 to 2011, Daughton served as deputy chief of mission at the embassy in Beirut, Lebanon.

 

Daughton speaks French and Greek. He is married to Melinda Burrell.

-Matt Bewig

 

To Learn More:

Between Terror and Tourism: An Overland Journey Across North Africa (by Michael Mewshaw)

U.S. Takes Issue with Author’s Account of Visit at Embassy in Algiers (by Steven Levingston, Washington Post

Statement Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (pdf)

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Namibia

Mathieu, Gail
ambassador-image

A native of New Jersey, Gail Dennise Mathieu was sworn in as the US Ambassador to Namibia on November 15, 2007.

 
Mathieu received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Antioch College and a Juris Doctor degree from Rutgers University’s School of Law in Newark, NJ. She also attended The Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. She speaks French and Spanish.
 
Mathieu began her professional career as an assistant prosecutor for the city of Newark, New Jersey. She is a member of the New Jersey and District of Columbia Bars.
 
A career member of the Senior Foreign Service, Mathieu began her career with key positions in Paris, Geneva, Jeddah, Port of Spain and Santo Domingo. She also served as the deputy director of the Office of Pacific Island Affairs from 1995-1997, deputy director of the Office of West African Affairs from 1997-1999, and deputy chief of mission in Accra, Ghana from 1999-2002.
 
She then served as US Ambassador to Niger from November 2002–September 2005, followed director of the Office of Technical Specialized Agencies in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.
 
Mathieu is married and has one son.
 
 
 

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