Uganda

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Overview

Roughly the size of Oregon, Uganda is located in east central Africa. Originally settled by hunter-gatherers thousands of years ago, Uganda was subsequently populated by Bantu, Nilotic and Ateker people. Arab traders first made contact with Uganda in the 1800s, followed by British explorers and missionaries. By 1888, British control spread throughout the country, and in 1894, Uganda was placed under formal British protection. The country remained under British control until 1961, when it was granted internal self-government. On October 9, 1962, Uganda gained full independence. Over the next several years, political control teetered between those in favor of a centralized state and those favoring a loose federation of kingdoms. In 1966, Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution, assumed all government powers, and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. This paved the way for a series of leaders and abuses that followed for the next several decades. In January 1971, armed forces commander Idi Amin overthrew Obote and quickly gave himself absolute power. His rule as characterized by extreme human rights abuses and a rapidly declining economy. Finally, Tanzanian troops backed by Ugandan exiles overthrew Amin in 1979.

 
For much of the next decade, power shifted from an interim government and quasi-parliamentary legislative organ to complete military rule. In 1985, Gen. Tito Okello took control of the government. But human rights abuses continued as he sought to solidify his power. Okello was overthrown in 1986 and fled to Sudan. Museveni assumed the presidency shortly thereafter, and has managed to stay in power ever since. The country has made small strides towards a more democratic system of government and held its first multi-party elections in 20 years in 2006. Recent controversies have included the Bush Administration’s added sanctions on Uganda because of the country’s Lord’s Resistance Army rebel group, and a controversial drug trial being held in Uganda to prevent the spread of HIV from mothers to children.
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Located in east central Africa, Uganda has been called the “Pearl of Africa.” A lush land well watered by lakes, rivers, and heavy annual rainfall, only the northeastern corner of the country is insufficiently irrigated. Southeastern Uganda forms an arc around the northwestern part of Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake. In the west is Lake Mobuto Sese Seko (formerly Lake Albert); along with Lake Idi Amin (formerly Lake Edward), it forms part of the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo. Between the two western lakes rise the magnificent Ruwenzori Mountains, also called the Mountains of the Moon because of their bluish tinge.

 
Population: 30.9 million
 
Religions: Catholic 35.9%, Anglican 30.6%, other Protestant 18.7%, Muslim 9.2% (mostly Sunni), Ethnoreligious 3.8%, Hindu 0.8%, Baha’i 0.3%, non-religious 0.5%.
 
Ethnic Groups: Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6%.
 
Languages: Ganda 11.4%, Nyankore 6.2%, Chiga 5.3%, Soga 5.1%, Teso 3.8%, Lango 3.7%, Masaba 2.8%, Acholi 2.8%, Aringa 2.2%, English (official). There are 43 living languages in Uganda.
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History

Hunter-gatherers settled Uganda thousands of years ago. Around 1500 AD, Bantu tribes from central and western Africa came to occupy the southern areas of the country. They used agriculture, ironworking and social organization that eventually led to the development of centralized kingdoms.

 
The Nilotic people entered Uganda from the north, most likely around 100 AD. They brought cattle farming and settled mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the country. Luo migration (part of the Nilotic group) continued until the 16th century. Finally, the Ateker settled in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country.
 
During the 1830s, Arab traders arrived from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa. In Uganda they found several established kingdoms. British explorers followed in the 1860s, seeking the source of the Nile River. In 1877, Protestant missionaries arrived in Uganda, and in 1879, Catholic missionaries followed suit.
 
In 1888, the British began to assert more control over the region, with a royal charter to the Imperial British East Africa Company. In 1890, an agreement between the British and the Germans confirmed British dominance over Kenya and Uganda. In 1894, the Kingdom of Buganda was placed under a formal British protectorate.
 
Uganda remained under British control until 1961, when it was granted internal self-government. In elections held on March 1, 1961, Benedicto Kiwanuka of the Democratic Party became the first chief minister. Uganda remained part of the British Commonwealth, and a second round of elections, held in April 1962, elected members to a new National Assembly. Uganda gained its full independence on October 9, 1962.
 
For the next several years, supporters of a centralized state vied with those favoring a loose federation of tribal kingdoms. In 1966, Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution, assumed all government powers, and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In September 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic, gave the president even greater powers, and abolished the traditional kingdoms.
 
On January 25, 1971, Obote’s government was ousted in a military coup led by armed forces commander Idi Amin Dada. Amin declared himself president, dissolved the parliament, and amended the constitution to give himself absolute power. During his eight-year reign, Amin brought Uganda’s economy into decline, dissolved many social programs, and committed numerous human rights abuses. The Acholi and Langi ethnic groups were particular objects of Amin’s political persecution because they had supported Obote. In 1978, the International Commission of Jurists estimated that more than 100,000 Ugandans had been murdered during Amin’s reign of terror.
 
Until 1972, Asians had constituted the largest non-indigenous group in Uganda. That year, Amin expelled 50,000 Asians, who had been traders and businesspeople. Only after his overthrow in 1979 did they begin to come back.
 
In October 1978, Amin’s troops invaded Tanzania, only to be repulsed. The Tanzanian forces, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged war with Amin’s forces until April 11, 1979, when Kampala was captured. Amin fled with his remaining forces.
 
After his removal, the Uganda National Liberation front formed an interim government with Yusuf Lule as president. The government adopted a ministerial system of administration and created a quasi-parliamentary organ known as the National Consultative Commission (NCC). In June 1979, following a dispute over the extent of presidential powers, the NCC replaced Lule with Godfrey Binaisa. In a continuing dispute over the powers of the interim presidency, Binaisa was removed in May 1980.
 
Uganda was then ruled by a military commission headed by Paulo Muwanga. Elections held in December 1980 returned the UPC to power under the leadership of President Obote. Muwanga served as vice president. But under Obote, security forces had one of the world’s worst human rights records. In their efforts to stamp out an insurgency led by Yoweri Museveni’s National Resistance Army (NRA), they laid waste to a substantial section of the country, especially in the Luwero area north of Kampala.
 
Obote continued to rule until July 27, 1985, when an army brigade, comprised mostly of Acholi troops and commanded by Lt. Gen. Basilio Olara-Okello, took Kampala and proclaimed a military government. Obote fled into exile in Zambia.
 
The new regime was headed by Gen. Tito Okello, who immediately opened negotiations with Museveni’s insurgent forces and pledged to improve respect for human rights, end tribal rivalry, and conduct free and fair elections. But human rights abuses continued as the Okello government murdered civilians and ravaged the countryside seeking to destroy NRA support.
 
In the fall of 1985, the Okello government held negotiations with the NRA in Nairobi. Kenyan President Daniel Moi sought a cease-fire and development of a coalition government in Uganda. Though a ceasefire was adopted shortly thereafter, the NRA continued to fight, seizing Kampala in January 1986 and assuming control of the country. Okello fled north to Sudan.
 
Museveni’s forces organized a government, with Museveni as president. In March 2000, the country held a referendum to determine whether it should continue its present style of government (called the Movement system), or adopt a multi-party system. The results had the Movement system winning, though the elections were criticized for low turnout and voting restrictions.
 
Museveni was reelected to a second five-year term in March 2001. Parliamentary elections were held in June 2001, and more than 50% of contested seats were won by newcomers. Though these elections were thought to be fairer than before, they were still marred by restrictions on political party activities, incidents of violence, voter intimidation, and fraud.
 
In December 2003, a Constitutional Review Commission (CRC) issued a report proposing comprehensive constitutional change. The government, however, took issue with many CRC recommendations and made counter-proposals in September 2004. A July 2005 national referendum resulted in the adoption of a multiparty system of government and the subsequent inclusion of opposition parties in elections and government.
 
In February 2006, Uganda held its first multi-party elections since President Museveni came to power in 1986. Not surprisingly Museveni was declared the winner with 59.26% of the vote, giving him a third term in office (following the passage of a controversial amendment in June 2005 to eliminate presidential term limits).
 
The vicious and cult-like Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), which seeks to overthrow the Ugandan Government, has murdered, kidnapped and terrorized civilians in the north and east since 1986. Although the LRA does not threaten the stability of the Ugandan government, it has successfully devastated an entire region and displaced millions. Led by Joseph Kony, the LRA is accused of gross humanitarian violations, including the use of child soldiers, abduction, mutilation and sexual enslavement, and the leaders are wanted by the International Criminal Court. Members of the LRA leadership, especially Joseph Kony, have repeatedly stated that they will never surrender unless granted immunity from prosecution. 
 
The Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) launched "Operation Iron Fist" against LRA rebels in northern Uganda in 2002 and conducted operations against LRA sanctuaries in southern Sudan with the permission of the Sudanese Government. The LRA was pushed out of Uganda in 2005, but reestablished itself in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and continues to run operations in the DRC, Uganda, southern Sudan and occasionally Central African Republic.
 
History of Uganda (Wikipedia)
A Country Study: Uganda (Library of Congress)
 
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History of U.S. Relations with Uganda

Diplomatic relations between the US and Uganda were established on October 9, 1962, with Olcott H. Deming as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. New credentials were presented when Uganda became a republic, on January 6, 1964.

 
During the Vietnam War, Uganda tried to adhere to a non-alignment policy in order to criticize US policies. However, Uganda also attempted to gain US support to increase Uganda’s international coffee quota due to the International Coffee Organization’s restrictions between 1962 and 1989.
 
Despite tense relations during Idi Amin’s rule, the US briefly became Uganda’s chief trading partner in 1973 (after Ugandan-British relations broke off). During the same year, the US Embassy in Uganda was closed while the Ugandan Embassy in the US remained open.
 
During Amin’s rule, however, a number of US firms supplied security equipment to the government of Uganda for use by the military and intelligence service. All trade between the two nations ended in October 1978.
 
Relations improved after Amin’s fall in 1979 and the US reopened its embassy in Kampala. The US also provided emergency relief in the form of food, medical supplies, and agricultural aid.
 
Until 1984, relations with successor governments were cordial. The second Obote regime, between 1981 and 1985, announced a pro-Western stance. In response, the US increased its agricultural aid.
 
In July 1984, Elliott Abrams, the US Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, testified that Obote’s forces and Amin’s army committed similar human rights violations. Uganda denied the accusation and recalled Ugandan military officers who were training in the US. This created renewed strains between the two governments.
 
Since Yoweri Museveni assumed power in 1986, relations between the US and Uganda have been positive. Museveni visited Washington in October 1987 and February 1989.
 
Immigrants from Uganda to the US numbered around 50 per year between 1946 and 1996, with the exception of Ugandans fleeing Idi Amin’s regime in the 1970s. The watershed year was 1975, when 859 Ugandans sought refuge in the US. Some significant communities are located in Atlanta, Sacramento, Dallas, and St. Petersburg.
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Current U.S. Relations with Uganda

The US hopes to provide development assistance to reduce poverty in Uganda by focusing on health, education and agriculture. The US also provides large amounts of humanitarian assistance to populations without access to adequate food supplies because of conflict, drought and other factors. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have major programs to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Peace Corps Volunteers are active in primary teacher training and HIV/AIDS programs. Other programs promote trade and investment, curb environmental degradation, encourage the peaceful resolution of local and international conflicts, and promote honest and open government. US-Ugandan relations also benefit from significant contributions to health care, nutrition, education, and park systems from US missionaries, non-governmental organizations, private universities, HIV/AIDS researchers, and wildlife organizations. 

 
In 2003, the Invisible Children Movement put a spotlight on the situation in northern Uganda through a documentary about the children of northern Uganda who would night commute, or walk miles nightly to avoid abduction by LRA troops. The documentary gained national attention in the US and since its debut, night commuting has ended and the US and other allies set up several peace talks between the LRA and the Ugandan government. 
 
Additionally, the US is assisting Uganda to achieve growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act, providing a significant amount of development assistance.
 
On October 14, 2009, David Bahati, a Member of Parliament, introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill, which threatens to impose the death sentence on homosexual behavior. The bill was introduced after three American evangelical Christians (Scott Lively, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer) gave a series of talks in Uganda about the threat homosexuals posed to Bible-based values and the traditional African family. Their teachings about how to “cure” homosexuals have been widely discredited in the US, but they were presented in Uganda as experts on homosexuality, and thousands of Ugandans heard their broadcasts. The majority of Ugandans are for the bill; legislators consider it a defining bill for the country and for the generation. However, the bill has outraged the international community, who consider the bill a violation of human rights. Many donor nations, including the US, are threatening to withdraw aid to Uganda if the bill passes. Under international pressure, the Ugandan government has changed the punishment for homosexual behavior in the bill to life in prison, but the death sentence still remains for “serial offenders,” if an offender is HIV positive, and if a minor or disabled person is involved. Additionally, it states that Ugandans outside of the country may be extradited if they engage in homosexuality. Individuals, companies, and NGOs can also be penalized under the law. Several news agencies have stated that the bill was inspired by American evangelicals. The Obama administration has condemned the Bill.
 
In 2006, 28,120 Americans visited Uganda, 28% more than the 21,968 that visited in 2005. The number of American visitors has increased steadily every year since 2002, when 11,923 Americans traveled to the African country.
 
In 2006, 4,147 Ugandans visited the US. The number of Ugandan visitors to the US has fluctuated from a low of 3,215 (2003) and a high of 4,147 (2006) since 2002.
 
Ugandan Organizations in the US
 
American's Role Seen in Uganda Anti-Gay Push (by Jeffery Gettleman, New York Times)
 
Uganda (Council on Foreign Relations)
 
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Where Does the Money Flow

US imports from Uganda totaled $57.7 million in 2010 while US exports to Uganda totaled $94.4 million.

 
In 2010, top US imports included green coffee ($25.0 million), nonferrous metals ($6.2 million), cocoa beans ($5.2 million), and tea and spices ($3.2 million). During the same year, US exports included telecommunications equipment ($17.4 million), “civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts” ($15.4 million), computers ($8.0 million), wheat ($4.4 million), pharmaceutical preparations ($3.3 million), and “apparel, household goods-textile” ($3.0 million).
 
Uganda is seen as a strategic regional partner to the US. The US hopes to transition its assistance from humanitarian to long-term development security programs in northern Uganda.
 
The total FY 2011 request for foreign aid is $480.3 million: investing in people ($404.7 million), economic growth ($62.3 million), administration and oversight ($26.1 million), program design and learning ($8.2 million), peace and security ($6.8), and governing justly and democratically ($6.5 million).
 
The US focuses on health and education and the US is the largest international donor to Uganda’s health sector. The Global Health Initiative focuses on HIV/AIDS, malaria, family and reproductive health, child and maternal health, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.
 
Through the Global Health and Child Survival program and funding from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Ugandan government will be able to help orphans and vulnerable children infected by HIV/AIDS and provide them with antiretroviral drug treatment. USAID will enhance the Community-Based Directly Observed Therapy Short Course to help fight tuberculosis and improve TB infection control.
 
To improve maternal and child health, USAID will also attempt to increase the number of children who are fully immunized at 12 months and receive Vitamin A supplementation. It will promote lower rates of diarrheal illness through the promotion of safe drinking water and the use oral rehydration salts and zinc.
 
The US will also support Food for Peace Title II, in which beneficiaries will be trained in diversification, nutrition, and sustainable sanitation and hygiene practices; and distribute food to pregnant mothers, malnourished children, and those under five years of age.
 
In the education sector, USAID provides teacher training, supports curriculum reform, promotes girls’ education, and tries to improve school administration through training.
 
With regards to economic growth, the US aims to increase food security at the household and community levels, improve productivity of agribusiness, increase access to credit in the rural financial sector, develop the dairy market chain, and improve rural infrastructure. The US government says that it supports biodiversity activities, especially to protect the areas where oil has been discovered.
 
Through Public Law 480, the US, “will support the transition to peace and stability in northern Uganda by assisting former internally displaced persons to return to their farms and reestablish agricultural production…” by training farmers in sustainable practices, providing inputs for households during the first farming cycle, and rehabilitating secondary roads to improve market access. In the long-term, the US hopes to reach this goal through technology transfer and opening markets for Ugandan crops.
 
Uganda: Security Assistance (US Department of State)
Uganda (USAID)
 
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Controversies

Uganda-Iran Oil Deal Angers US

New-found oil reserves in the Albertine Rift are expected to be exploited in 2011. According to a Wikileaks cable, the Iranian government promised, “to fund the entire value chain of Uganda’s oil production, including building a refinery in Uganda and training Ugandans at its University of Petroleum Studies.” The leaked cable states that Uganda wanted to undermine Libya’s planned investments for oil in the region. A US cable “expressed concern” about Iran’s promises in Uganda’s oil sector. 
WikiLeaks: Uganda–Iran oil deal Angered US (by Tabu Butagira, Africa Review)
 
Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009
On October 14, 2009, David Bahati, a Member of Parliament, introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill, which threatens to impose the death sentence on homosexual behavior and introduces the extradition of homosexual Ugandans outside the country back to Uganda to be presecuted. Additionally, the bill penalizes individuals, businesses, and NGOs that support LGBT rights. The bill was introduced after three American evangelical Christians (Scott Lively, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer) gave a series of talks in Uganda about the threat homosexuals posed to Bible-based values and the traditional African family. Their teachings about how to “cure” homosexuals have been widely discredited in the US, but they were presented in Uganda as experts on homosexuality. Thousands of Ugandans heard the broadcasts discussing how the “gay movement is an evil institution” whose goal is to “defeat the marriage-based society and replace it with a culture of sexual promiscuity.” The majority of Ugandans are for the bill; legislators consider it a defining bill for the country and for the generation. Uganda's leaders have a close relationship with evangelical Christian groups in the US. However, the bill has outraged the international community, who consider the bill as a violation of human rights. Many donor nations, including the US, are threatening to withdraw aid to Uganda if the bill is passed. Due to international pressure, the bill has been changed to life in prison for homosexual behavior, but the death penalty still remains for “serial offenders,” if the “offender” is HIV positive, and if a minor or disabled person is involved.
 
A Wikileaks cable uncovered goals for an UN-sponsored meeting in December 2009 to support imposing the death penalty on homosexuals. David Kato, a Ugandan teacher and LGBT rights activist, spoke at a UN meeting for LGBT rights with “evident nervousness” while members of the Uganda Human Rights Commission “openly joked and snickered.” He was murdered on January 26, 2011, shortly after winning a lawsuit against a magazine which identified him as gay and called for his execution.
David Kato (Wikipedia)
 
Bush Administration Adds New Sanctions to Uganda
In August 2008, President George W. Bush added new sanctions on the leaders of Uganda’s Lord’s Resistance Army rebel group. LRA chief Joseph Kony was added to the State Department’s list of global terrorists, which carries financial and other penalties after he rejected a peace deal with the Ugandan government. It is unknown whether or not Joseph Kony has any financial assets that would be affected by the sanctions. The LRA has waged a brutal 21-year insurgency in northern Uganda. Kony has been in hiding, most likely in the Congo.
Will US Sanctions Shoot Down Kony? (by Rosebell Kagumire, The Independent)
 
AIDS Drug Trials Raise Controversy
In December 2004, doctors and AIDS activists in Uganda expressed worry that drug testing on pregnant women may have failed to meet international standards. The drug Nevirapine is supposed to prevent HIV from passing from mothers to their children. But to date, studies have shown that the women may develop a resistance to it that can limit the efficacy of drug therapies to combat the disease in the future. Experts on both sides of the issues have argued for and against the drug, with some worrying that the drug will be withdrawn. Side effects of the drug include rashes, liver toxicity and even death in some patients who use the drug on a daily basis to treat HIV. US health officials told Uganda’s government in July 2002 that the research had violated federal patient safety rules. A memo showed US officials knew about the problems as early as January 2002, but chose not to tell President George W. Bush before he authorized shipping the drug to Africa later as part of a $500 million initiative.
Baby-Saving Anti-Aids Drug Faces Ban (by Lynne Altenroxel, IOL-South Africa)
 
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Human Rights

According to the State Department, “Serious human rights problems in the country included arbitrary and politically motivated killings; vigilante killings; politically motivated abductions; mob and ethnic violence; torture and abuse of suspects and detainees; harsh prison conditions; official impunity; arbitrary and politically motivated arrest and detention; incommunicado and lengthy pretrial detention; restrictions on the right to a fair trial and on freedoms of speech, press, assembly, association, and religion; restrictions on opposition parties; electoral irregularities; official corruption; violence and discrimination against women and children, including female genital mutilation (FGM), sexual abuse of children, and the ritual killing of children; trafficking in persons; violence and discrimination against persons with disabilities and homosexuals; restrictions on labor rights; and forced labor, including child labor.”

 
According to the State Department, the rebel group, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), which conducted its activities from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), continued to hold children that it had forcibly recruited from Uganda. Hundreds of thousands of displaced persons remained in refugee camps due to fear of LRA attacks. LRA attacks, however, were directed mostly at the citizens in the DRC, Sudan and Central African Republic. The LRA regularly abducted and conscripted thousands of children in previous years. Children abducted by the LRA in previous years were used as laborers, soldiers, guards and sex slaves. In addition to being beaten, raped, and forced to march until exhausted, abducted children were forced to participate in the killing of other children.
 
Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
Security forces, including police and members of Local Defense Units (LDUs) or militias, committed unlawful killings during 2010. Security forces were responsible for killings during forcible dispersion of demonstrations, apprehension, and other activities; for deaths in custody, some due to torture; and for accidental killings. For example, on January 17, Moses Kabagambe, a LDU member, was accused of killing civilian Lauren Arinaitwe. His trial is continuing.
 
According to Human Rights Watch, “political tensions between the central government and the Buganda kingdom exploded in violent demonstrations that rocked Kampala for two days in September, leaving at least 27 dead. Members of the opposition and media faced criminal charges for speaking before and after the events about the president’s governance and the use of lethal force to quell rioters. No members of the security forces were charged. The government forced four Luganda-language radio stations off the air.”
 
Disappearance
In 2009, politically motivated abductions occurred. For example, the “Open Secret” report from Human Rights Watch stated that six individuals were last seen in the Kololo detention facility; their current whereabouts are unknown.
 
There were no reports of the Lord’s Resistance Army abducting children from northern Uganda during the year.
 
Torture
Although the constitution prohibits such practices, security forces beat and torture criminal suspects which generally occurred in unregistered detention facilities.
 
The African Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture Victims registered 116 accusations of torture against the police within a six month period in 2009.
 
The Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC), the Foundation for Human Rights Initiative, and other human rights organizations reported torture by security forces, including caning, beating, stabbing, tying of limbs in contorted positions, forced marching and rape.
 
There were numerous instances in which mobs attacked suspected thieves and other persons known or suspected to have committed crimes. Motivated in part by distrust or misunderstanding of the formal judicial system, these mobs engaged in beatings, lynchings, and other forms of mistreatment.
 
Prison Conditions
Prison conditions remained harsh and frequently life threatening. There were reports of torture and abusive forced labor.
 
There were 30,957 prisoners in mid-December 2009, three times the capacity. The largest occurrences of overcrowding took place in juvenile detention facilities and female wings of prisons. The Prison Service noted that 141 prisoners died due to harmful prison conditions.
 
There are several unregistered facilities of which information have not been disseminated.  
 
Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention
According to the US State Department, “mass arrests during police sweeps for criminals remained a problem, as did arrests based on sedition, treason, incitement of violence, and terrorism charges.” Those accused were subject to abuses such as detention without charge, detention in unregistered locations, and mistreatment.
 
The law requires judges and prosecutors to issue search warrants before arresting individuals; however, this was poorly enforced. Similarly, detainees are required to have access to a lawyer, but many do not receive access.
 
Denial of Fair Public Trial
Judicial corruption remains problematic and lower courts are understaffed, weak, and inefficient.
 
The military court system often did not assure the right to a fair trial; some military defense attorneys were untrained and could be assigned by the military command.
 
Freedom of Speech and Press
Police arbitrarily arrested journalists and demonstrators during the year. The government at times restricted the right to a free press rights, and the law criminalizes offenses by the media and limited the media’s ability to function effectively. The government also at times harassed and intimidated journalists, and the independent media continued to practice self-censorship.
 
On September 12, police in Kampala arrested opposition member Issa Kikungwe who was delivered a speech on development at a youth church event. He was released the following day on a bond. Investigation is continuing.
 
On August 27, police arrested and interrogated Andrew Mwenda, senior editor Charles Bichachi, and assistant news editor Joseph Were of the Independent Magazine for publishing a cartoon insinuating that President Museveni would rig 2011 presidential elections.
 
Freedom of Movement
The government at times limited the right of freedom of movement in practice. A married woman is required to carry her husband’s written permission on her passport application if children are to be listed on her passport. Travel restrictions were imposed on opposition members, journalists, and other accused of sedition and treason.
 
Official Corruption and Government Transparency
Government officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. The World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected that corruption was a serious problem.
 
The Parliamentary Accounting Committee linked 12 ministries and several senior government officials to misusing funds that were supposed to be directed to the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. A 2008 investigation by the Auditor General of the Meeting discovered missing 53.3 trillion shillings ($27 million) missing.
 
Women
The government did not enforce the law in matters of locally or culturally prevalent discrimination against women, children, persons with disabilities, or certain ethnic groups.
 
The government inconsistently enforces the law against rape. The problem was underreported and usually remained uninvestigated. There were 1,536 registered rape cases in 2008, of which 241 went to court.
 
Parliament passed the 2009 Domestic Violence Bill which, “criminalizes domestic violence, expands protection for victims, and provides penalties for abusers ranging from fines to two years’ imprisonment.”
 
An information campaign was launched in September 2009 to curb domestic violence. The law requires that bride prices be nonrefundable gifts to the parents of the bride. The 2007 constitutional amendments approved by parliament did not include a provision to abolish bride prices, despite 2003 recommendations to do so from civil society groups.
 
“Discrimination against women continued to be widespread, especially in rural areas where it was part of traditional practices. Many customary laws discriminate against women in the areas of adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women cannot own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygamy is legal under both customary and Islamic law, and, in some ethnic groups, men could ‘inherit’ the widows of their deceased brothers. Women also experienced economic discrimination.” (State Department)
 
Children
On August 29, 2008, parliament passed a law that provides for free and compulsory education for the first seven years of primary school or through high school for underprivileged students. Students, except for the underprivileged, still had to pay for school supplies and some school costs, and many parents could not afford the school fees.
 
Child abuse remained a serious problem, particularly rape and other sexual abuse of girls. Genital mutilation was performed on girls in the Sabiny and Pokot ethnic groups. Marriage of young girls by parental arrangement was common, particularly in rural areas, although the legal age for marriage was 18.
 
Ritual Sacrifice
The Ugandan government acknowledged increased reports of ritual sacrifice during the year. The Anti-Human Sacrifice Taskforce states that sacrifice is linked to the belief that witchcraft can increase affluence.
 
Many adults capture other people’s children and bring the child’s heart and blood in a tin. Clients were said to come three times a week on average.
 
A witch-doctor interviewed by the BBC denied involvement in the murder of children; instead, spirits spoke directly to his clients. He is paid 500,000 shillings for a meeting, but “most of that money was handed over to his ‘boss’ in a nationwide network of witch-doctors.”
 
Trafficking
Trafficking in persons was a problem, and there were reports that men, women, and children were trafficked to, from, and within the country. The 2007 Antitrafficking in Persons Bill protects victims and prosecutes traffickers. Trafficking occurs mostly internally for labor, sexual exploitation, and criminal activities.
 
Societal Abuses Based on Gender Identity
Homosexuals faced widespread discrimination and legal restrictions. It is illegal for homosexuals to engage in sexual acts, based on a 1950 legal provision that criminalizes “carnal acts against the order of nature” with a penalty of life imprisonment. In 2010, a law was introduced which would make engaging in homosexual behavior a crime punishable by death. It was later amended to life in prison and still remains to be passed.
 
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Debate
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Past Ambassadors

Note: The Embassy in Kampala was established on Oct 9, 1962, with Olcott H. Deming as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.

Olcott H. Deming
Appointment: Jan 7, 1963
Presentation of Credentials: Jan 14, 1963
Termination of Mission: Presented new credentials on Jan 6, 1964, when Uganda became a republic; left post Jun 26, 1966
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Mar 12, 1963.
 
Henry E. Stebbins
Appointment: Jun 27, 1966
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 22, 1966
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 2, 1969
 
Clarence Clyde Ferguson, Jr.
Appointment: Mar 17, 1970
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 30, 1970
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 19, 1972
 
Thomas Patrick Melady
Appointment: Jun 12, 1972
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 30, 1972
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 9, 1973
Note: Robert V. Keeley was serving as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim when all US diplomatic personnel were withdrawn from Uganda, Nov 10, 1973.
 
Note: The Embassy in Kampala was re-established on Jun 18, 1979, with David Halstead as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.
 
Gordon Robert Beyer
Appointment: May 23, 1980
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 13, 1980
Termination of Mission: Left post May 31, 1983
 
Allen Clayton Davis
Appointment: Apr 5, 1983
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 1, 1983
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 14, 1985
 
Robert G. Houdek
Appointment: Oct 28, 1985
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 22, 1985
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 17, 1988
 
John Andrew Burroughs, Jr.
Appointment: Aug 12, 1988
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1988
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 28, 1991
 
Johnnie Carson
Appointment: Jul 2, 1991
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 18, 1991
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 9, 1994
 
E. Michael Southwick
Appointment: Aug 26, 1994
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 6, 1994
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 1, 1997
 
Nancy Jo Powell
Appointment: Nov 7, 1997
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 4, 1997
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 9, 1999
 
Martin George Brennan
Appointment: Aug 9, 1999
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 11, 1999
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 5, 2002
 
Jimmy Kolker
Appointment: Oct 3, 2002
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 17, 2002
Termination of Mission: Sep 30, 2005
 
Name: Steven A. Browning
State of Residency: Texas
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 21, 2005
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 26, 2006
Termination of Mission: 
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Uganda's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Kamunanwire, Perezi

Perezi K. Kamunanwire has served as Uganda’s ambassador to the United States since May 15, 2006. He previously served as ambassador to Austria, Germany, and the Holy See (1986-1988), and as Uganda’s permanent representative to the United Nations in New York (1988-1996). In 1990, he was the 45th chairman of the UN General Assembly Special Political Committee.
 
Kamunanwire was the chair of the Uganda People’s Congress Youth League (1958-1963) and the Pan-African Students’ Organization in Amsterdam (1965-1970).
 
Educated at Columbia University, Kamunanwire received a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and a Masters of Arts in International Relations. He earned a Doctor of Laws at Ignatius College in New York.
 
He taught at City College of the City University of New York (1974-1986), where he also directed programs in black studies and international relations. Starting in 2003, he has served as an adjunct professor at the Center for Conflict Management and Organizational Research associated with Sofia University in Bulgaria.
 
Kamunanwire wrote the foreword to We, the PanAfrikans: Essays on the Black Experience in 1992.
 
He is fluent in English and five African languages (Kinyarwanda, Lingala, Luganda, Runyankole, and Swahili).
 
Kamunanwire is married and has two children.
 

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Uganda's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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U.S. Ambassador to Uganda

DeLisi, Scott
ambassador-image

A career Senior Foreign Service Officer whose career has included several postings in Southern Asia will be the next ambassador to the small Himalayan nation of Nepal. President Barack Obama nominated Scott H. DeLisi to the post on November 17, 2009, subject to Senate confirmation. A native of Minnesota who grew up in South St. Paul, DeLisi earned a B.A. in 1977 and a J.D. in 1980, both from the University of Minnesota. Nepal, a landlocked country sandwiched between large powers India and China, has recently emerged from a decade long civil war, and became a republic in 2008. 

 
DeLisi joined the State Department Foreign Service in June 1981, having seen an ad in the Wall Street Journal announcing the Foreign Service exam. For his first overseas assignments, he served as Consular Officer at the American Consulate General in Mumbai, India, from February 1982 to August 1983, and as Economic Officer at the American Embassy at Antananarivo, Madagascar, from September 1983 to May 1984. Returning stateside, DeLisi served as Desk Officer at the Office of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka from September 1984 to July 1986, and as Liaison to the Defense Intelligence agencies in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research from July 1986 to July 1989. The year following this introduction to intelligence work reveals a curious gap in DeLisi’s publicly known activities, followed by three overseas postings of gradually increasing responsibility in the “political cone” of the Foreign Service. DeLisi served as Political Officer at the Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 1990 to July 1993, and then as Chief of the Political Section at the Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka, August 1993 to July 1997. In August 1997, DeLisi became Deputy Chief of Mission at the Embassy in Gaborone, Botswana, a position he held through July 2001. Returning to Washington, DC, he served as Director of the Office of Southern African Affairs from August 2001 through June 2004. He served as Ambassador to Eritrea from August 2004 to July 2007, where he became well known for his open criticism of the authoritarianism and human rights violations of the one party regime of President Isaias Afewerki. After Eritrea, DeLisi took two personnel positions, as Director of Career Development and Assignments, Entry Level Division, from July 2007 to April 2008, and as Director of Career Development and Assignments from April 2008 to November 2009, when President Obama nominated him to be ambassador to Nepal. 
 
DeLisi is married to Leija DeLisi. They have three children, Joseph, Anthony and Tjiama. Neither DeLisi nor his wife have made political donations over the years. 
 
Interview                          

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Uganda

Lanier, Jerry
ambassador-image

Jerry P. Lanier was confirmed as U.S. Ambassador to Uganda on August 4, 2009. In an October 19, 2009, cable released by WikiLeaks, Lanier praised Uganda’s progress, but warned that Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni’s “autocratic tendencies, as well as Uganda's pervasive corruption, sharpening ethnic divisions, and explosive population growth are eroding Uganda's status as an African success story."

 
Raised in North Carolina, he earned his B.A. at Pembroke State University, and his M.A. at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He then worked for three years as a lecturer in the History Department at the University of North Carolina.
 
Lanier joined the U.S. Department of State in 1983, where he served as Deputy Director for the Office of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh Affairs; Deputy Director for the Office of West African Affairs; Legislative Management Officer for Africa; Country Officer for the South Korea; and Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for African Affairs.
 
Lanier took additional State Department positions including deputy chief of mission in Ghana, as well as posts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Thailand, Kenya, and the Philippines. He subsequently became the Director of the Office of Regional and Security Affairs in the State Department’s Africa Bureau.
 
Prior to his appointment as Ambassador to Uganda, Lanier was Foreign Policy Advisor for the United States Africa Command in Stuttgart, Germany.
 
Lanier has four children: Peter, Clare, and Jordan Lanier, and Juliane Hollingsworth.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Overview

Roughly the size of Oregon, Uganda is located in east central Africa. Originally settled by hunter-gatherers thousands of years ago, Uganda was subsequently populated by Bantu, Nilotic and Ateker people. Arab traders first made contact with Uganda in the 1800s, followed by British explorers and missionaries. By 1888, British control spread throughout the country, and in 1894, Uganda was placed under formal British protection. The country remained under British control until 1961, when it was granted internal self-government. On October 9, 1962, Uganda gained full independence. Over the next several years, political control teetered between those in favor of a centralized state and those favoring a loose federation of kingdoms. In 1966, Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution, assumed all government powers, and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. This paved the way for a series of leaders and abuses that followed for the next several decades. In January 1971, armed forces commander Idi Amin overthrew Obote and quickly gave himself absolute power. His rule as characterized by extreme human rights abuses and a rapidly declining economy. Finally, Tanzanian troops backed by Ugandan exiles overthrew Amin in 1979.

 
For much of the next decade, power shifted from an interim government and quasi-parliamentary legislative organ to complete military rule. In 1985, Gen. Tito Okello took control of the government. But human rights abuses continued as he sought to solidify his power. Okello was overthrown in 1986 and fled to Sudan. Museveni assumed the presidency shortly thereafter, and has managed to stay in power ever since. The country has made small strides towards a more democratic system of government and held its first multi-party elections in 20 years in 2006. Recent controversies have included the Bush Administration’s added sanctions on Uganda because of the country’s Lord’s Resistance Army rebel group, and a controversial drug trial being held in Uganda to prevent the spread of HIV from mothers to children.
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Basic Information

Lay of the Land: Located in east central Africa, Uganda has been called the “Pearl of Africa.” A lush land well watered by lakes, rivers, and heavy annual rainfall, only the northeastern corner of the country is insufficiently irrigated. Southeastern Uganda forms an arc around the northwestern part of Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake. In the west is Lake Mobuto Sese Seko (formerly Lake Albert); along with Lake Idi Amin (formerly Lake Edward), it forms part of the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo. Between the two western lakes rise the magnificent Ruwenzori Mountains, also called the Mountains of the Moon because of their bluish tinge.

 
Population: 30.9 million
 
Religions: Catholic 35.9%, Anglican 30.6%, other Protestant 18.7%, Muslim 9.2% (mostly Sunni), Ethnoreligious 3.8%, Hindu 0.8%, Baha’i 0.3%, non-religious 0.5%.
 
Ethnic Groups: Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6%.
 
Languages: Ganda 11.4%, Nyankore 6.2%, Chiga 5.3%, Soga 5.1%, Teso 3.8%, Lango 3.7%, Masaba 2.8%, Acholi 2.8%, Aringa 2.2%, English (official). There are 43 living languages in Uganda.
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History

Hunter-gatherers settled Uganda thousands of years ago. Around 1500 AD, Bantu tribes from central and western Africa came to occupy the southern areas of the country. They used agriculture, ironworking and social organization that eventually led to the development of centralized kingdoms.

 
The Nilotic people entered Uganda from the north, most likely around 100 AD. They brought cattle farming and settled mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the country. Luo migration (part of the Nilotic group) continued until the 16th century. Finally, the Ateker settled in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country.
 
During the 1830s, Arab traders arrived from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa. In Uganda they found several established kingdoms. British explorers followed in the 1860s, seeking the source of the Nile River. In 1877, Protestant missionaries arrived in Uganda, and in 1879, Catholic missionaries followed suit.
 
In 1888, the British began to assert more control over the region, with a royal charter to the Imperial British East Africa Company. In 1890, an agreement between the British and the Germans confirmed British dominance over Kenya and Uganda. In 1894, the Kingdom of Buganda was placed under a formal British protectorate.
 
Uganda remained under British control until 1961, when it was granted internal self-government. In elections held on March 1, 1961, Benedicto Kiwanuka of the Democratic Party became the first chief minister. Uganda remained part of the British Commonwealth, and a second round of elections, held in April 1962, elected members to a new National Assembly. Uganda gained its full independence on October 9, 1962.
 
For the next several years, supporters of a centralized state vied with those favoring a loose federation of tribal kingdoms. In 1966, Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution, assumed all government powers, and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In September 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic, gave the president even greater powers, and abolished the traditional kingdoms.
 
On January 25, 1971, Obote’s government was ousted in a military coup led by armed forces commander Idi Amin Dada. Amin declared himself president, dissolved the parliament, and amended the constitution to give himself absolute power. During his eight-year reign, Amin brought Uganda’s economy into decline, dissolved many social programs, and committed numerous human rights abuses. The Acholi and Langi ethnic groups were particular objects of Amin’s political persecution because they had supported Obote. In 1978, the International Commission of Jurists estimated that more than 100,000 Ugandans had been murdered during Amin’s reign of terror.
 
Until 1972, Asians had constituted the largest non-indigenous group in Uganda. That year, Amin expelled 50,000 Asians, who had been traders and businesspeople. Only after his overthrow in 1979 did they begin to come back.
 
In October 1978, Amin’s troops invaded Tanzania, only to be repulsed. The Tanzanian forces, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged war with Amin’s forces until April 11, 1979, when Kampala was captured. Amin fled with his remaining forces.
 
After his removal, the Uganda National Liberation front formed an interim government with Yusuf Lule as president. The government adopted a ministerial system of administration and created a quasi-parliamentary organ known as the National Consultative Commission (NCC). In June 1979, following a dispute over the extent of presidential powers, the NCC replaced Lule with Godfrey Binaisa. In a continuing dispute over the powers of the interim presidency, Binaisa was removed in May 1980.
 
Uganda was then ruled by a military commission headed by Paulo Muwanga. Elections held in December 1980 returned the UPC to power under the leadership of President Obote. Muwanga served as vice president. But under Obote, security forces had one of the world’s worst human rights records. In their efforts to stamp out an insurgency led by Yoweri Museveni’s National Resistance Army (NRA), they laid waste to a substantial section of the country, especially in the Luwero area north of Kampala.
 
Obote continued to rule until July 27, 1985, when an army brigade, comprised mostly of Acholi troops and commanded by Lt. Gen. Basilio Olara-Okello, took Kampala and proclaimed a military government. Obote fled into exile in Zambia.
 
The new regime was headed by Gen. Tito Okello, who immediately opened negotiations with Museveni’s insurgent forces and pledged to improve respect for human rights, end tribal rivalry, and conduct free and fair elections. But human rights abuses continued as the Okello government murdered civilians and ravaged the countryside seeking to destroy NRA support.
 
In the fall of 1985, the Okello government held negotiations with the NRA in Nairobi. Kenyan President Daniel Moi sought a cease-fire and development of a coalition government in Uganda. Though a ceasefire was adopted shortly thereafter, the NRA continued to fight, seizing Kampala in January 1986 and assuming control of the country. Okello fled north to Sudan.
 
Museveni’s forces organized a government, with Museveni as president. In March 2000, the country held a referendum to determine whether it should continue its present style of government (called the Movement system), or adopt a multi-party system. The results had the Movement system winning, though the elections were criticized for low turnout and voting restrictions.
 
Museveni was reelected to a second five-year term in March 2001. Parliamentary elections were held in June 2001, and more than 50% of contested seats were won by newcomers. Though these elections were thought to be fairer than before, they were still marred by restrictions on political party activities, incidents of violence, voter intimidation, and fraud.
 
In December 2003, a Constitutional Review Commission (CRC) issued a report proposing comprehensive constitutional change. The government, however, took issue with many CRC recommendations and made counter-proposals in September 2004. A July 2005 national referendum resulted in the adoption of a multiparty system of government and the subsequent inclusion of opposition parties in elections and government.
 
In February 2006, Uganda held its first multi-party elections since President Museveni came to power in 1986. Not surprisingly Museveni was declared the winner with 59.26% of the vote, giving him a third term in office (following the passage of a controversial amendment in June 2005 to eliminate presidential term limits).
 
The vicious and cult-like Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), which seeks to overthrow the Ugandan Government, has murdered, kidnapped and terrorized civilians in the north and east since 1986. Although the LRA does not threaten the stability of the Ugandan government, it has successfully devastated an entire region and displaced millions. Led by Joseph Kony, the LRA is accused of gross humanitarian violations, including the use of child soldiers, abduction, mutilation and sexual enslavement, and the leaders are wanted by the International Criminal Court. Members of the LRA leadership, especially Joseph Kony, have repeatedly stated that they will never surrender unless granted immunity from prosecution. 
 
The Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) launched "Operation Iron Fist" against LRA rebels in northern Uganda in 2002 and conducted operations against LRA sanctuaries in southern Sudan with the permission of the Sudanese Government. The LRA was pushed out of Uganda in 2005, but reestablished itself in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and continues to run operations in the DRC, Uganda, southern Sudan and occasionally Central African Republic.
 
History of Uganda (Wikipedia)
A Country Study: Uganda (Library of Congress)
 
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History of U.S. Relations with Uganda

Diplomatic relations between the US and Uganda were established on October 9, 1962, with Olcott H. Deming as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. New credentials were presented when Uganda became a republic, on January 6, 1964.

 
During the Vietnam War, Uganda tried to adhere to a non-alignment policy in order to criticize US policies. However, Uganda also attempted to gain US support to increase Uganda’s international coffee quota due to the International Coffee Organization’s restrictions between 1962 and 1989.
 
Despite tense relations during Idi Amin’s rule, the US briefly became Uganda’s chief trading partner in 1973 (after Ugandan-British relations broke off). During the same year, the US Embassy in Uganda was closed while the Ugandan Embassy in the US remained open.
 
During Amin’s rule, however, a number of US firms supplied security equipment to the government of Uganda for use by the military and intelligence service. All trade between the two nations ended in October 1978.
 
Relations improved after Amin’s fall in 1979 and the US reopened its embassy in Kampala. The US also provided emergency relief in the form of food, medical supplies, and agricultural aid.
 
Until 1984, relations with successor governments were cordial. The second Obote regime, between 1981 and 1985, announced a pro-Western stance. In response, the US increased its agricultural aid.
 
In July 1984, Elliott Abrams, the US Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, testified that Obote’s forces and Amin’s army committed similar human rights violations. Uganda denied the accusation and recalled Ugandan military officers who were training in the US. This created renewed strains between the two governments.
 
Since Yoweri Museveni assumed power in 1986, relations between the US and Uganda have been positive. Museveni visited Washington in October 1987 and February 1989.
 
Immigrants from Uganda to the US numbered around 50 per year between 1946 and 1996, with the exception of Ugandans fleeing Idi Amin’s regime in the 1970s. The watershed year was 1975, when 859 Ugandans sought refuge in the US. Some significant communities are located in Atlanta, Sacramento, Dallas, and St. Petersburg.
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Current U.S. Relations with Uganda

The US hopes to provide development assistance to reduce poverty in Uganda by focusing on health, education and agriculture. The US also provides large amounts of humanitarian assistance to populations without access to adequate food supplies because of conflict, drought and other factors. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have major programs to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Peace Corps Volunteers are active in primary teacher training and HIV/AIDS programs. Other programs promote trade and investment, curb environmental degradation, encourage the peaceful resolution of local and international conflicts, and promote honest and open government. US-Ugandan relations also benefit from significant contributions to health care, nutrition, education, and park systems from US missionaries, non-governmental organizations, private universities, HIV/AIDS researchers, and wildlife organizations. 

 
In 2003, the Invisible Children Movement put a spotlight on the situation in northern Uganda through a documentary about the children of northern Uganda who would night commute, or walk miles nightly to avoid abduction by LRA troops. The documentary gained national attention in the US and since its debut, night commuting has ended and the US and other allies set up several peace talks between the LRA and the Ugandan government. 
 
Additionally, the US is assisting Uganda to achieve growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act, providing a significant amount of development assistance.
 
On October 14, 2009, David Bahati, a Member of Parliament, introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill, which threatens to impose the death sentence on homosexual behavior. The bill was introduced after three American evangelical Christians (Scott Lively, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer) gave a series of talks in Uganda about the threat homosexuals posed to Bible-based values and the traditional African family. Their teachings about how to “cure” homosexuals have been widely discredited in the US, but they were presented in Uganda as experts on homosexuality, and thousands of Ugandans heard their broadcasts. The majority of Ugandans are for the bill; legislators consider it a defining bill for the country and for the generation. However, the bill has outraged the international community, who consider the bill a violation of human rights. Many donor nations, including the US, are threatening to withdraw aid to Uganda if the bill passes. Under international pressure, the Ugandan government has changed the punishment for homosexual behavior in the bill to life in prison, but the death sentence still remains for “serial offenders,” if an offender is HIV positive, and if a minor or disabled person is involved. Additionally, it states that Ugandans outside of the country may be extradited if they engage in homosexuality. Individuals, companies, and NGOs can also be penalized under the law. Several news agencies have stated that the bill was inspired by American evangelicals. The Obama administration has condemned the Bill.
 
In 2006, 28,120 Americans visited Uganda, 28% more than the 21,968 that visited in 2005. The number of American visitors has increased steadily every year since 2002, when 11,923 Americans traveled to the African country.
 
In 2006, 4,147 Ugandans visited the US. The number of Ugandan visitors to the US has fluctuated from a low of 3,215 (2003) and a high of 4,147 (2006) since 2002.
 
Ugandan Organizations in the US
 
American's Role Seen in Uganda Anti-Gay Push (by Jeffery Gettleman, New York Times)
 
Uganda (Council on Foreign Relations)
 
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Where Does the Money Flow

US imports from Uganda totaled $57.7 million in 2010 while US exports to Uganda totaled $94.4 million.

 
In 2010, top US imports included green coffee ($25.0 million), nonferrous metals ($6.2 million), cocoa beans ($5.2 million), and tea and spices ($3.2 million). During the same year, US exports included telecommunications equipment ($17.4 million), “civilian aircraft, engines, equipment, and parts” ($15.4 million), computers ($8.0 million), wheat ($4.4 million), pharmaceutical preparations ($3.3 million), and “apparel, household goods-textile” ($3.0 million).
 
Uganda is seen as a strategic regional partner to the US. The US hopes to transition its assistance from humanitarian to long-term development security programs in northern Uganda.
 
The total FY 2011 request for foreign aid is $480.3 million: investing in people ($404.7 million), economic growth ($62.3 million), administration and oversight ($26.1 million), program design and learning ($8.2 million), peace and security ($6.8), and governing justly and democratically ($6.5 million).
 
The US focuses on health and education and the US is the largest international donor to Uganda’s health sector. The Global Health Initiative focuses on HIV/AIDS, malaria, family and reproductive health, child and maternal health, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.
 
Through the Global Health and Child Survival program and funding from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Ugandan government will be able to help orphans and vulnerable children infected by HIV/AIDS and provide them with antiretroviral drug treatment. USAID will enhance the Community-Based Directly Observed Therapy Short Course to help fight tuberculosis and improve TB infection control.
 
To improve maternal and child health, USAID will also attempt to increase the number of children who are fully immunized at 12 months and receive Vitamin A supplementation. It will promote lower rates of diarrheal illness through the promotion of safe drinking water and the use oral rehydration salts and zinc.
 
The US will also support Food for Peace Title II, in which beneficiaries will be trained in diversification, nutrition, and sustainable sanitation and hygiene practices; and distribute food to pregnant mothers, malnourished children, and those under five years of age.
 
In the education sector, USAID provides teacher training, supports curriculum reform, promotes girls’ education, and tries to improve school administration through training.
 
With regards to economic growth, the US aims to increase food security at the household and community levels, improve productivity of agribusiness, increase access to credit in the rural financial sector, develop the dairy market chain, and improve rural infrastructure. The US government says that it supports biodiversity activities, especially to protect the areas where oil has been discovered.
 
Through Public Law 480, the US, “will support the transition to peace and stability in northern Uganda by assisting former internally displaced persons to return to their farms and reestablish agricultural production…” by training farmers in sustainable practices, providing inputs for households during the first farming cycle, and rehabilitating secondary roads to improve market access. In the long-term, the US hopes to reach this goal through technology transfer and opening markets for Ugandan crops.
 
Uganda: Security Assistance (US Department of State)
Uganda (USAID)
 
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Controversies

Uganda-Iran Oil Deal Angers US

New-found oil reserves in the Albertine Rift are expected to be exploited in 2011. According to a Wikileaks cable, the Iranian government promised, “to fund the entire value chain of Uganda’s oil production, including building a refinery in Uganda and training Ugandans at its University of Petroleum Studies.” The leaked cable states that Uganda wanted to undermine Libya’s planned investments for oil in the region. A US cable “expressed concern” about Iran’s promises in Uganda’s oil sector. 
WikiLeaks: Uganda–Iran oil deal Angered US (by Tabu Butagira, Africa Review)
 
Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009
On October 14, 2009, David Bahati, a Member of Parliament, introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill, which threatens to impose the death sentence on homosexual behavior and introduces the extradition of homosexual Ugandans outside the country back to Uganda to be presecuted. Additionally, the bill penalizes individuals, businesses, and NGOs that support LGBT rights. The bill was introduced after three American evangelical Christians (Scott Lively, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer) gave a series of talks in Uganda about the threat homosexuals posed to Bible-based values and the traditional African family. Their teachings about how to “cure” homosexuals have been widely discredited in the US, but they were presented in Uganda as experts on homosexuality. Thousands of Ugandans heard the broadcasts discussing how the “gay movement is an evil institution” whose goal is to “defeat the marriage-based society and replace it with a culture of sexual promiscuity.” The majority of Ugandans are for the bill; legislators consider it a defining bill for the country and for the generation. Uganda's leaders have a close relationship with evangelical Christian groups in the US. However, the bill has outraged the international community, who consider the bill as a violation of human rights. Many donor nations, including the US, are threatening to withdraw aid to Uganda if the bill is passed. Due to international pressure, the bill has been changed to life in prison for homosexual behavior, but the death penalty still remains for “serial offenders,” if the “offender” is HIV positive, and if a minor or disabled person is involved.
 
A Wikileaks cable uncovered goals for an UN-sponsored meeting in December 2009 to support imposing the death penalty on homosexuals. David Kato, a Ugandan teacher and LGBT rights activist, spoke at a UN meeting for LGBT rights with “evident nervousness” while members of the Uganda Human Rights Commission “openly joked and snickered.” He was murdered on January 26, 2011, shortly after winning a lawsuit against a magazine which identified him as gay and called for his execution.
David Kato (Wikipedia)
 
Bush Administration Adds New Sanctions to Uganda
In August 2008, President George W. Bush added new sanctions on the leaders of Uganda’s Lord’s Resistance Army rebel group. LRA chief Joseph Kony was added to the State Department’s list of global terrorists, which carries financial and other penalties after he rejected a peace deal with the Ugandan government. It is unknown whether or not Joseph Kony has any financial assets that would be affected by the sanctions. The LRA has waged a brutal 21-year insurgency in northern Uganda. Kony has been in hiding, most likely in the Congo.
Will US Sanctions Shoot Down Kony? (by Rosebell Kagumire, The Independent)
 
AIDS Drug Trials Raise Controversy
In December 2004, doctors and AIDS activists in Uganda expressed worry that drug testing on pregnant women may have failed to meet international standards. The drug Nevirapine is supposed to prevent HIV from passing from mothers to their children. But to date, studies have shown that the women may develop a resistance to it that can limit the efficacy of drug therapies to combat the disease in the future. Experts on both sides of the issues have argued for and against the drug, with some worrying that the drug will be withdrawn. Side effects of the drug include rashes, liver toxicity and even death in some patients who use the drug on a daily basis to treat HIV. US health officials told Uganda’s government in July 2002 that the research had violated federal patient safety rules. A memo showed US officials knew about the problems as early as January 2002, but chose not to tell President George W. Bush before he authorized shipping the drug to Africa later as part of a $500 million initiative.
Baby-Saving Anti-Aids Drug Faces Ban (by Lynne Altenroxel, IOL-South Africa)
 
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Human Rights

According to the State Department, “Serious human rights problems in the country included arbitrary and politically motivated killings; vigilante killings; politically motivated abductions; mob and ethnic violence; torture and abuse of suspects and detainees; harsh prison conditions; official impunity; arbitrary and politically motivated arrest and detention; incommunicado and lengthy pretrial detention; restrictions on the right to a fair trial and on freedoms of speech, press, assembly, association, and religion; restrictions on opposition parties; electoral irregularities; official corruption; violence and discrimination against women and children, including female genital mutilation (FGM), sexual abuse of children, and the ritual killing of children; trafficking in persons; violence and discrimination against persons with disabilities and homosexuals; restrictions on labor rights; and forced labor, including child labor.”

 
According to the State Department, the rebel group, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), which conducted its activities from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), continued to hold children that it had forcibly recruited from Uganda. Hundreds of thousands of displaced persons remained in refugee camps due to fear of LRA attacks. LRA attacks, however, were directed mostly at the citizens in the DRC, Sudan and Central African Republic. The LRA regularly abducted and conscripted thousands of children in previous years. Children abducted by the LRA in previous years were used as laborers, soldiers, guards and sex slaves. In addition to being beaten, raped, and forced to march until exhausted, abducted children were forced to participate in the killing of other children.
 
Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
Security forces, including police and members of Local Defense Units (LDUs) or militias, committed unlawful killings during 2010. Security forces were responsible for killings during forcible dispersion of demonstrations, apprehension, and other activities; for deaths in custody, some due to torture; and for accidental killings. For example, on January 17, Moses Kabagambe, a LDU member, was accused of killing civilian Lauren Arinaitwe. His trial is continuing.
 
According to Human Rights Watch, “political tensions between the central government and the Buganda kingdom exploded in violent demonstrations that rocked Kampala for two days in September, leaving at least 27 dead. Members of the opposition and media faced criminal charges for speaking before and after the events about the president’s governance and the use of lethal force to quell rioters. No members of the security forces were charged. The government forced four Luganda-language radio stations off the air.”
 
Disappearance
In 2009, politically motivated abductions occurred. For example, the “Open Secret” report from Human Rights Watch stated that six individuals were last seen in the Kololo detention facility; their current whereabouts are unknown.
 
There were no reports of the Lord’s Resistance Army abducting children from northern Uganda during the year.
 
Torture
Although the constitution prohibits such practices, security forces beat and torture criminal suspects which generally occurred in unregistered detention facilities.
 
The African Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture Victims registered 116 accusations of torture against the police within a six month period in 2009.
 
The Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC), the Foundation for Human Rights Initiative, and other human rights organizations reported torture by security forces, including caning, beating, stabbing, tying of limbs in contorted positions, forced marching and rape.
 
There were numerous instances in which mobs attacked suspected thieves and other persons known or suspected to have committed crimes. Motivated in part by distrust or misunderstanding of the formal judicial system, these mobs engaged in beatings, lynchings, and other forms of mistreatment.
 
Prison Conditions
Prison conditions remained harsh and frequently life threatening. There were reports of torture and abusive forced labor.
 
There were 30,957 prisoners in mid-December 2009, three times the capacity. The largest occurrences of overcrowding took place in juvenile detention facilities and female wings of prisons. The Prison Service noted that 141 prisoners died due to harmful prison conditions.
 
There are several unregistered facilities of which information have not been disseminated.  
 
Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention
According to the US State Department, “mass arrests during police sweeps for criminals remained a problem, as did arrests based on sedition, treason, incitement of violence, and terrorism charges.” Those accused were subject to abuses such as detention without charge, detention in unregistered locations, and mistreatment.
 
The law requires judges and prosecutors to issue search warrants before arresting individuals; however, this was poorly enforced. Similarly, detainees are required to have access to a lawyer, but many do not receive access.
 
Denial of Fair Public Trial
Judicial corruption remains problematic and lower courts are understaffed, weak, and inefficient.
 
The military court system often did not assure the right to a fair trial; some military defense attorneys were untrained and could be assigned by the military command.
 
Freedom of Speech and Press
Police arbitrarily arrested journalists and demonstrators during the year. The government at times restricted the right to a free press rights, and the law criminalizes offenses by the media and limited the media’s ability to function effectively. The government also at times harassed and intimidated journalists, and the independent media continued to practice self-censorship.
 
On September 12, police in Kampala arrested opposition member Issa Kikungwe who was delivered a speech on development at a youth church event. He was released the following day on a bond. Investigation is continuing.
 
On August 27, police arrested and interrogated Andrew Mwenda, senior editor Charles Bichachi, and assistant news editor Joseph Were of the Independent Magazine for publishing a cartoon insinuating that President Museveni would rig 2011 presidential elections.
 
Freedom of Movement
The government at times limited the right of freedom of movement in practice. A married woman is required to carry her husband’s written permission on her passport application if children are to be listed on her passport. Travel restrictions were imposed on opposition members, journalists, and other accused of sedition and treason.
 
Official Corruption and Government Transparency
Government officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. The World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected that corruption was a serious problem.
 
The Parliamentary Accounting Committee linked 12 ministries and several senior government officials to misusing funds that were supposed to be directed to the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. A 2008 investigation by the Auditor General of the Meeting discovered missing 53.3 trillion shillings ($27 million) missing.
 
Women
The government did not enforce the law in matters of locally or culturally prevalent discrimination against women, children, persons with disabilities, or certain ethnic groups.
 
The government inconsistently enforces the law against rape. The problem was underreported and usually remained uninvestigated. There were 1,536 registered rape cases in 2008, of which 241 went to court.
 
Parliament passed the 2009 Domestic Violence Bill which, “criminalizes domestic violence, expands protection for victims, and provides penalties for abusers ranging from fines to two years’ imprisonment.”
 
An information campaign was launched in September 2009 to curb domestic violence. The law requires that bride prices be nonrefundable gifts to the parents of the bride. The 2007 constitutional amendments approved by parliament did not include a provision to abolish bride prices, despite 2003 recommendations to do so from civil society groups.
 
“Discrimination against women continued to be widespread, especially in rural areas where it was part of traditional practices. Many customary laws discriminate against women in the areas of adoption, marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under local customary law in many areas, women cannot own or inherit property or retain custody of their children. Traditional divorce law in many areas requires women to meet stricter evidentiary standards than men to prove adultery. Polygamy is legal under both customary and Islamic law, and, in some ethnic groups, men could ‘inherit’ the widows of their deceased brothers. Women also experienced economic discrimination.” (State Department)
 
Children
On August 29, 2008, parliament passed a law that provides for free and compulsory education for the first seven years of primary school or through high school for underprivileged students. Students, except for the underprivileged, still had to pay for school supplies and some school costs, and many parents could not afford the school fees.
 
Child abuse remained a serious problem, particularly rape and other sexual abuse of girls. Genital mutilation was performed on girls in the Sabiny and Pokot ethnic groups. Marriage of young girls by parental arrangement was common, particularly in rural areas, although the legal age for marriage was 18.
 
Ritual Sacrifice
The Ugandan government acknowledged increased reports of ritual sacrifice during the year. The Anti-Human Sacrifice Taskforce states that sacrifice is linked to the belief that witchcraft can increase affluence.
 
Many adults capture other people’s children and bring the child’s heart and blood in a tin. Clients were said to come three times a week on average.
 
A witch-doctor interviewed by the BBC denied involvement in the murder of children; instead, spirits spoke directly to his clients. He is paid 500,000 shillings for a meeting, but “most of that money was handed over to his ‘boss’ in a nationwide network of witch-doctors.”
 
Trafficking
Trafficking in persons was a problem, and there were reports that men, women, and children were trafficked to, from, and within the country. The 2007 Antitrafficking in Persons Bill protects victims and prosecutes traffickers. Trafficking occurs mostly internally for labor, sexual exploitation, and criminal activities.
 
Societal Abuses Based on Gender Identity
Homosexuals faced widespread discrimination and legal restrictions. It is illegal for homosexuals to engage in sexual acts, based on a 1950 legal provision that criminalizes “carnal acts against the order of nature” with a penalty of life imprisonment. In 2010, a law was introduced which would make engaging in homosexual behavior a crime punishable by death. It was later amended to life in prison and still remains to be passed.
 
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Past Ambassadors

Note: The Embassy in Kampala was established on Oct 9, 1962, with Olcott H. Deming as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.

Olcott H. Deming
Appointment: Jan 7, 1963
Presentation of Credentials: Jan 14, 1963
Termination of Mission: Presented new credentials on Jan 6, 1964, when Uganda became a republic; left post Jun 26, 1966
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Mar 12, 1963.
 
Henry E. Stebbins
Appointment: Jun 27, 1966
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 22, 1966
Termination of Mission: Left post Sep 2, 1969
 
Clarence Clyde Ferguson, Jr.
Appointment: Mar 17, 1970
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 30, 1970
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 19, 1972
 
Thomas Patrick Melady
Appointment: Jun 12, 1972
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 30, 1972
Termination of Mission: Left post Feb 9, 1973
Note: Robert V. Keeley was serving as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim when all US diplomatic personnel were withdrawn from Uganda, Nov 10, 1973.
 
Note: The Embassy in Kampala was re-established on Jun 18, 1979, with David Halstead as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.
 
Gordon Robert Beyer
Appointment: May 23, 1980
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 13, 1980
Termination of Mission: Left post May 31, 1983
 
Allen Clayton Davis
Appointment: Apr 5, 1983
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 1, 1983
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 14, 1985
 
Robert G. Houdek
Appointment: Oct 28, 1985
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 22, 1985
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 17, 1988
 
John Andrew Burroughs, Jr.
Appointment: Aug 12, 1988
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1988
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 28, 1991
 
Johnnie Carson
Appointment: Jul 2, 1991
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 18, 1991
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 9, 1994
 
E. Michael Southwick
Appointment: Aug 26, 1994
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 6, 1994
Termination of Mission: Left post Aug 1, 1997
 
Nancy Jo Powell
Appointment: Nov 7, 1997
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 4, 1997
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 9, 1999
 
Martin George Brennan
Appointment: Aug 9, 1999
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 11, 1999
Termination of Mission: Left post Jul 5, 2002
 
Jimmy Kolker
Appointment: Oct 3, 2002
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 17, 2002
Termination of Mission: Sep 30, 2005
 
Name: Steven A. Browning
State of Residency: Texas
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 21, 2005
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 26, 2006
Termination of Mission: 
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Uganda's Ambassador to the U.S.
ambassador-image Kamunanwire, Perezi

Perezi K. Kamunanwire has served as Uganda’s ambassador to the United States since May 15, 2006. He previously served as ambassador to Austria, Germany, and the Holy See (1986-1988), and as Uganda’s permanent representative to the United Nations in New York (1988-1996). In 1990, he was the 45th chairman of the UN General Assembly Special Political Committee.
 
Kamunanwire was the chair of the Uganda People’s Congress Youth League (1958-1963) and the Pan-African Students’ Organization in Amsterdam (1965-1970).
 
Educated at Columbia University, Kamunanwire received a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science and a Masters of Arts in International Relations. He earned a Doctor of Laws at Ignatius College in New York.
 
He taught at City College of the City University of New York (1974-1986), where he also directed programs in black studies and international relations. Starting in 2003, he has served as an adjunct professor at the Center for Conflict Management and Organizational Research associated with Sofia University in Bulgaria.
 
Kamunanwire wrote the foreword to We, the PanAfrikans: Essays on the Black Experience in 1992.
 
He is fluent in English and five African languages (Kinyarwanda, Lingala, Luganda, Runyankole, and Swahili).
 
Kamunanwire is married and has two children.
 

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Uganda's Embassy Web Site in the U.S.
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U.S. Ambassador to Uganda

DeLisi, Scott
ambassador-image

A career Senior Foreign Service Officer whose career has included several postings in Southern Asia will be the next ambassador to the small Himalayan nation of Nepal. President Barack Obama nominated Scott H. DeLisi to the post on November 17, 2009, subject to Senate confirmation. A native of Minnesota who grew up in South St. Paul, DeLisi earned a B.A. in 1977 and a J.D. in 1980, both from the University of Minnesota. Nepal, a landlocked country sandwiched between large powers India and China, has recently emerged from a decade long civil war, and became a republic in 2008. 

 
DeLisi joined the State Department Foreign Service in June 1981, having seen an ad in the Wall Street Journal announcing the Foreign Service exam. For his first overseas assignments, he served as Consular Officer at the American Consulate General in Mumbai, India, from February 1982 to August 1983, and as Economic Officer at the American Embassy at Antananarivo, Madagascar, from September 1983 to May 1984. Returning stateside, DeLisi served as Desk Officer at the Office of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka from September 1984 to July 1986, and as Liaison to the Defense Intelligence agencies in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research from July 1986 to July 1989. The year following this introduction to intelligence work reveals a curious gap in DeLisi’s publicly known activities, followed by three overseas postings of gradually increasing responsibility in the “political cone” of the Foreign Service. DeLisi served as Political Officer at the Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 1990 to July 1993, and then as Chief of the Political Section at the Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka, August 1993 to July 1997. In August 1997, DeLisi became Deputy Chief of Mission at the Embassy in Gaborone, Botswana, a position he held through July 2001. Returning to Washington, DC, he served as Director of the Office of Southern African Affairs from August 2001 through June 2004. He served as Ambassador to Eritrea from August 2004 to July 2007, where he became well known for his open criticism of the authoritarianism and human rights violations of the one party regime of President Isaias Afewerki. After Eritrea, DeLisi took two personnel positions, as Director of Career Development and Assignments, Entry Level Division, from July 2007 to April 2008, and as Director of Career Development and Assignments from April 2008 to November 2009, when President Obama nominated him to be ambassador to Nepal. 
 
DeLisi is married to Leija DeLisi. They have three children, Joseph, Anthony and Tjiama. Neither DeLisi nor his wife have made political donations over the years. 
 
Interview                          

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Previous U.S. Ambassador to Uganda

Lanier, Jerry
ambassador-image

Jerry P. Lanier was confirmed as U.S. Ambassador to Uganda on August 4, 2009. In an October 19, 2009, cable released by WikiLeaks, Lanier praised Uganda’s progress, but warned that Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni’s “autocratic tendencies, as well as Uganda's pervasive corruption, sharpening ethnic divisions, and explosive population growth are eroding Uganda's status as an African success story."

 
Raised in North Carolina, he earned his B.A. at Pembroke State University, and his M.A. at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He then worked for three years as a lecturer in the History Department at the University of North Carolina.
 
Lanier joined the U.S. Department of State in 1983, where he served as Deputy Director for the Office of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh Affairs; Deputy Director for the Office of West African Affairs; Legislative Management Officer for Africa; Country Officer for the South Korea; and Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for African Affairs.
 
Lanier took additional State Department positions including deputy chief of mission in Ghana, as well as posts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Thailand, Kenya, and the Philippines. He subsequently became the Director of the Office of Regional and Security Affairs in the State Department’s Africa Bureau.
 
Prior to his appointment as Ambassador to Uganda, Lanier was Foreign Policy Advisor for the United States Africa Command in Stuttgart, Germany.
 
Lanier has four children: Peter, Clare, and Jordan Lanier, and Juliane Hollingsworth.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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