Ann-Imelda Radice, who was appointed by President Bush in 2006 to a four-year term as director of the IMLS, received a BA in Art History from Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts, in 1969; an MA from the Villa Schifanoia in Florence, Italy, in 1971; an MBA from American University in 1985; and a Ph.D.in Art and Architectural History from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1976. Radice began her career in arts administration at the National Gallery of Art, as Assistant Curator and Staff Lecturer. Then she worked in the Office of the Architect of the U.S. Capitol, first as Architectural Historian, then as Curator. After that she was the first Director of the National Museum of Women in the Arts, then Chief of the Creative Arts Division of the United States Information Agency. Next she became Senior Deputy Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), and in 1992 President H. W. Bush appointed her to serve as the Acting Chairman of NEA. Confirmed by the Senate on March 13, Radice immediately stirred controversy when, following the dictates of President Bush, she refused funding of two already approved grants that she deemed too sexually explicit. Soon, various peer review panels that recommended grants resigned in protest. When Bush was defeated in the 1992 presidential election, Radice left government and consulted for New River Media, World Affairs Television Production in Montreal and Washington From 1998 to 2001 she was Executive Director of the Friends of Dresden, Inc. From 2001 to 2003 she was Executive Director of the Appeal of Conscience Foundation in New York City. Beginning in 2003 Radice rejoined the government as Chief of Staff to the Secretary of the United States Department of Education, Roderick Paige. After two years in this post, Radice moved on to become Acting Assistant Chairman for Programs at the National Endowment for the Humanities. Radice is also an author of publications on art and architecture, including the book, The Original Library of Congress: the history (1800-1814) of the Library of Congress in the United States Capitol. She contributed to the Bush-Cheney campaign in 2004.